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MA 70 Mod 15 Nerves

Nervous System Medical Terms

cephalalgia head pain (headache)
cerebellar pertaining to cerebellum
cerebellitis cerebellum inflammation
cerebral pertaining to cerebrum
cerebral sclerosis hardening of the cerebrum
cerebrospinal pertaining to cerebrum and spine
cerebrovascular pertaining to the vessels in the cerebrum
electroencephalogram record of brain’s electricity (EEG)
encephalitis brain inflammation
encephaloma brain tumor
glial pertaining to connective tissue that surrounds and supports nerve cells
glioma brain tumor made up neuroglia
meningioma meninges tumor
meningeal pertaining to meninges
meningitis meninges inflammation
meningocele protrusion of the meninges through the spinal column
myelogram image of the spinal cord
myelitis spinal cord inflammation
myelopathy Any disease of the spinal cord
neural pertaining to nerves
neuralgia nerve pain
neurectomy surgical removal of nerve
neuritis inflammation of a nerve
neurocyte nerve cell
neuroglia cells in the brain and spinal cord that support and insulate the neurons
neurologist specialist in nerves and nervous system
neuroma nerve tumor
neuropathy any disease of the nerves
neuroplasty surgical repair of the nerves
polyneuritis inflammation of many nerves
neurorrhaphy suture of nerve
pontine pertaining to pons
radiculitis nerve root inflammation
radiculopathy nerve root disease
spinal pertaining to the spine
thalamic pertaining to thalamus
intrathecal pertaining to within meninges
analgesia absence of pain or sensation
anesthesia lack of sensations
hyperesthesia excessive sensations
hemiparesis weakness of half the body
monoparesis weakness of one extremity, muscle, or muscle area
aphasia lack of speech
dysphasia difficult speech
monoplegia paralysis of one extremity, muscle, or muscle
paraplegia paralysis from the waist down
quadriplegia paralysis of all four limbs
ataxia lack of muscle coordination
anesthesiology branch of medicine specializing in anesthesia, including for surgical procedures,resuscitation measures, and management of acute and chronic pain
anesthesiologist One who specializes in the anethesia
coma profound unconsciousness or stupor resulting from illness or injury
conscious awake and aware of surroundings
convulsion severe involuntary muscle contractions and relaxations
dementia progressive impairment of intellectual function that interferes with performing activities of daily living
hemiparesis weakness or loss of motion on one side of body
hemiplegia paralysis on only one side of body
neurology branch of medicine concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and conditions of nervous system
neurosurgery branch of medicine concerned with treating conditions and diseases of nervous systems
neurosurgeon one who specializes in surgical treatment of nervous system disorders
palsy temporary or permanent loss of ability to control movement
paralysis temporary or permanent loss of function or voluntary movement
paraplegia paralysis of lower portion of body and both legs
paresthesia abnormal sensation such as burning or tingling
seizure sudden, uncontrollable onset of symptoms
unconscious condition or state of being unaware of surroundings, with inability to respond to stimuli
Alzheimer’s disease chronic, organic mental disorder consisting of dementia; more prevalent in adults between ages 40 and 60; involves progressive disorientation, apathy, speech and gait disturbances, and loss of memory
cerebral aneurysm localized abnormal dilatation of blood vessel, usually artery; result of congenital defect or weakness in wall of vessel; ruptured aneurysm is common cause of hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident
cerebral contusion bruising of brain from blow or impact; symptoms last longer than 24 hours include unconsciousness, dizziness, vomiting, unequal pupil size, and shock
cerebral palsy a disorder of movement, muscle tone or posture that is caused by injury or abnormal development in the immature brain, most often before birth
cerebrovascular accident (CVA) development of infarct due to loss in blood supply to area of brain; blood flow interrupted by ruptured blood vessel (hemorrhage), floating clot (embolus), stationary clot (thrombosis), or compression
concussion injury to brain resulting from brain being shaken inside skull from blow or impact; can result in unconsciousness, dizziness, vomiting, unequal pupil size,and shock; symptoms last 24 hours or less
epilepsy recurrent disorder of brain in which seizures and loss of consciousness occur as result of uncontrolled electrical activity of neurons in brain
hydrocephalus accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within ventricles of brain; causing head to be enlarged; treated by creating artificial shunt for fluid to leave brain; if untreated may lead to seizures and mental retardation
Parkinson disease chronic disorder of nervous system with tremors, muscular weakness, rigidity and shuffling gait.
transient ischemic attack (TIA) temporary interference with blood supply to brain, causing neurological symptoms such as dizziness, numbness, and hemiparesis; may eventually lead to full-blown stroke (cerebrovascular accident)
meningocele congenital condition in which meninges protrude through opening in vertebral column; see spina bifida
myelomeningocele congenital condition in which meninges and spinal cord protrude through opening in vertebral column; see spina bifida
poliomyelitis viral inflammation of gray matter of spinal cord resulting in paralysis
spina bifida congenital defect in walls of spinal canal in which laminae of vertebra do not meet or close; may result in meningocele or myelomeningocele—meninges or spinal cord being pushed through opening
Bell’s palsy one-sided facial paralysis due to inflammation of facial nerve, probably viral in nature; patient cannot control salivation, tearing of eyes, or expression, but most will eventually recover
multiple sclerosis inflammatory disease of CNS causing a loss of myelin insulation to nerves
myasthenia gravis disease with severe muscular weakness and fatigue due to insufficient neurotransmitter at synapse
shingles eruption of painful blisters on body along nerve path, thought to be caused by Herpes zoster virus infection of nerve root
epidural hematoma mass of blood in space outside dura mater of brain and spinal cord
subdural hematoma mass of blood forming beneath dura mater; meninges are torn by trauma; may exert fatal pressure on brain if hematoma is not drained by surgery
CAT, CT radiographic imaging using narrow beam of x-rays. The machine rotates to create several cross sectional images
echoencephalography recording of ultrasonic echoes of brain; useful in determining abnormal patterns of shifting in brain
MRI use of electromagnetic energy to create cross sectional images
myelography injection of radiopaque dye into spinal canal; X-ray is taken to examine normal and abnormal outlines made by dye
positron emission tomography (PET) use of positive radionuclides to reconstruct brain sections; measurement taken of oxygen and glucose uptake, cerebral blood flow, and blood volume; amount of glucose brain uses indicates how metabolically active tissue is
Electroencephalography (EEG) recording electrical activity of brain by placing electrodes at various positions on scalp; used in sleep studies to determine if there is normal pattern of activity during sleep
lumbar puncture (LP) puncture with needle into lumbar area to withdraw fluid for examination and for injection of anesthesia; also called spinal puncture or spinal tap cerebrospinal fluid analysis testing of the CSF for blood, bacteria or virus infections
cerebrospinal fluid analysis testing of the CSF for blood, bacteria or virus infection
Craniotomy incision into the skull to relieve pressure from head trauma
cerebrospinal fluid shunts surgical procedure in which bypass is created to drain cerebrospinal fluid; used to treat hydrocephalus by draining excess cerebrospinal fluid from brain and diverting it to abdominal cavity
analgesic narcotic or non-narcotic medication; treats minor to moderate pain
anesthetic produces loss of sensation or loss of consciousness
Created by: leschnei