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Ch. 3 in Barrons
|The proportion of earth’s surface occupied by permanent human settlement. This is important because it tells how much of the land has been built upon and how much land is left for us to build on.
|the frequency with which something occurs in space
|The total number of people divided by the total land area. This is what most people think of as density; how many people per area of land
|The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture. This is important because it relates to how much land is being used by how many people.
|the number of farmers per unit of area of farmland
|the population level that can be supported, given the quantity of food, habitat, water and other life infrastructure present. This is important because it tells how many people an area will be able to support
|providing the best outcomes for human and natural environments both in the present and for the future Relates to development that meets today’s needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
|The arrangement of something across Earth’s surface
|the arrangement of a feature in space is distribution. Geographers identify the three main properties as density, concentration, and pattern
|arithmetic growth; increases at a constant amount per unit time (1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
|geometric growth; doubles each population (2, 4, 8, 16, …)
|The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase. This is important because it can help project countries’ population increase over the years and when its population will double.
|a sudden increase or burst in the population in either a certain geographical area or worldwide
|people born in the US between 1946 and 1964; this post-war era allowed for better education, employment, peace and prosperity - increasing higher rates of both marriage and fertility.
|period in the US during the 1960s and 1970s when fertility rates dropped as many female baby boomers sought higher levels of education and jobs, marrying later in life.
|people born in the US between 1965 and 1980; will have the burden of supporting the Baby Boom cohort as they head into retirement.
|people born between 1980 and 2001; also referred to as "Echo Boomers" (many are the offspring of Baby Boomers)
|geographic study of population
|births minus deaths in a given population
|Crude birth rate (CBR or natality)
|number of live births per year per 1,000 people
|Crude death rate (CDR)
|number of deaths per year per 1,000 people
|There are two useful ways to measure mortality; infant mortality rate and life expectancy. The IMR reflect a country’s health care system and life expectancy measures the average number of years a baby can expect to live.
|Rate of natural increase
|the percentage by which a population grows in a year. CBR-CDR = NIR (excludes migration)
|Total fertility rate: (TFR)
|average number of children born to a woman during her childbearing years. (U.S below 2.1 in Africa above 4, in S. America between 2 - 3, in Europe below 2.1, in China & Russia it is below 2.1)
|Infant mortality rate: (IMR)
|annual number of infant deaths <1 yr, compared with total live births. Expressed as annual # of deaths among infants per 1000 births (not a %). Used to tell how developed a country is
|Child mortality rate
|annual number of deaths of children under the age of 5, compared with total live births (also calculated as number of deaths per 1,000 births)
|Maternal mortality rate
|annual number of deaths of women during childbirth per 1,000 women
|The number of people who are too young or too old to work compared to the number of people in their productive years (how many people each worker supports).
|formula to calculate population change: finds the increase (or decrease) in a population. births minus deaths plus (or minus) net migration. This is important because it helps to determine which stage in the demographic transition model a country is in.
|Demographic Transition model
|Stage 1 = low growth, Stage 2 = High Growth, Stage 3 = Moderate Growth, and Stage 4 is Low Growth. Stage 5 negative population growth.
|Epidemiological transition model
|model where a sudden increase in population growth caused by medical treatment, followed by a re-leveling of population growth from subsequent declines in procreation rates (penicillin
|elationship between the number of people on Earth, and the availability of resources
|a sharp drop or decrease in a region’s population Unlike overpopulation, it does not refer to resources but to having enough people to support the local economic system
|Stationary population level (SPL)/Zero population growth
|when the crude birth rate equals the crude death rate and the natural increase rate approaches zero
|Population theorist: food production = linear; human reproduction = geometric; despite natural checks (famine, disease) will always be overpopulation
|Population theorist: human growth stimulates agricultural intensification (opposite of Malthus)
|anti-capitalist; lack of food is due to unequal distribution; human growth is not a problem
|Earth has an abundance of resources; can never be used up
|theory that builds upon Malthus’ thoughts on overpopulation. Takes into count two factors that Malthus did not: population growth in LDC’s, and outstripping of resources other than food
|immigration = into a region; emigration = out of a region
|migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big cities urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas families are less likely to move intern. than young adults
|(Ravenstein) Predicts that the optimal location of a service is directly related to the number of people in the area and inversely related to the distance people must travel to access it
|incentives for people to leave a place (e.g., harsh climate, economic recession, political turmoil)
|attractions that draw migrants to a place (pleasant climate, employment, education)
|Catalysts of migration
|many exist such as economic conditions, political circumstances, armed conflict & civil war, environmental conditions, culture and traditions, technological advances, flow of information (through technology)
|Friction of Distance
|istance usually requires some amount of effort, money, and/or energy to overcome. Because of this "friction," spatial interactions will tend to take place more often over shorter distances; quantity of interaction will decline with distance
|Phenomena diminish in importance and eventually disappear by increasing distance from its origin. The farther away one group is from another, the less likely the two groups are to interact.
|migration to a destination that occurs in stages (e.g., from farm to nearby village and later to town and city) Chain migration: migration event in which individuals follow the migratory path of preceding friends or family to an existing community
|The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away
|people relocate in response to perceived opportunity
|People removed from their countries and forced to live in other countries because of war, natural disaster, and government. (Atlantic Slave Trade, Jewish Diaspora)
|migration back to an original area in which people had left (e.g., migration increases after natural disasters, yet many eventually return after a time
|movement that has a closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally
|movement that involves temporary, recurrent relocation (e.g., military service, migrant workers, college attendance, transhumance – movement of pastoralists and their livestock between highland and lowland pastures)
|people forced to leave their homes (Nazis forcing Jews into ghettoes). Most refugees 1) move without more property than they can carry; 2) make their first “step” on foot, by bicycle, wagon, or open boat; and 3) move without the official documents
|Expansive: encourage large families (e.g., USSR under Stalin, China under Mao Zedong); Restrictive: reduce the rate of natural increase (e.g. China – the One-Child policy); Eugenic: favor one racial sector over others