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M6 13-005

Exam 8: Reproductive System; Cancer of the Reproductive System

TermDefinition
Cervical Canver Cancer of the Cervix
Cervical Cancer: Incidence Higher in Hispanic, African and Native Americans
Cervical Cancer: Risk Sexually transmitted diseases  Human papillomavirus  Sexual activity at early age  Multiple sexual partners  Smoking
Cervical Cancer: Stages Dysplasia Carcinoma in situ (CIS) Invasive Carcinoma
Cervical Cancer: Symptoms Leukorrhea Spotting between periods Postcoital bleeding Feeling pf pressure on the bladder or bowel Pain radiating to lower extremities
Cervcial Cancer: Diagosis Pap Smear, Cervical Inspection, Cervical Biopsy
Cervical Cancer: Treatment Prevention Removal of affected area Surgery/Radiation/Chemotherapy
Cervical Cancer: Nursing Management Emotional support Comfort measures Strict intake and output. Assess vaginal drainage/bleeding Treatment concerns 
Cervical Cancer: Prognosis Good if treated early 5 year survival rate for localized stage is 92% 4070 Cervical Cancer deaths
Endometrial Cancer Cancer of the Endometrial wall.
Endometrial Cancer: Incidence Most common female reproductive malignancy More common in post menopausal women Risk increases when high-level estrogen
Endometrial Cancer: Symptoms Bleeding: 50% of women with postmenopausal bleeding have uterine cancer Pelvic Pain (usually a late symptom)
Endometrial Cancer: Diagnosis Pevlic and rectal exam (enlarged uterus may be palpated) Endometrial biopsy
Endometrial Cancer: Treatment Hysterectomy (primary therapy) -Total abdominal (TAH) -Bilateral Salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) Radiation (pre/postoperative) Chemotherapy  
Endometrial Cancer: Nursing Management Emotional support Explain treatment and procedures Comfort measures Patient/family education
Endometrial Cancer: Prognosis Slow growing Late metastasis Bleeding is early sign Good if treated early 5-year survival rate 83%
What are 5 causes for increased risk of cervical cancer? Herpes; Human papillomavirus; Sexual activity at early age; multiple partners; smoking
What percent of women with postmenopausal bleeding have endometrial cancer? 50%
Ovarian Cancer Cancer of the Ovaries
Ovarian Cancer: Incidence Fourth most-common cause of cancer death in women. Risk increases with age. Early stage asymptomatic.
Ovarian Cancer: Symtopms Vague abdominal discomfort (early) Pelvic or abdominal pain Gastrointestinal symptoms Menstrual irregularities Pressure on the bladder/frequency /urgency   Ascites (late) Weight loss/gain
Ovarian Cancer: Diagnosis Early detection difficult Pelvic Exam US & CT Scan Laparotomy CA 125 (Cancer antigen)
Ovarian Cancer: Treatment Oophorectomy-Removal of ovary External or internal radiation Chemotherapy Total Abdominal Hysterectomy (TAH)
Ovarian Cancer: Nursing Management Emotional support Explain treat/procedures Patient and family education Provide pre/post-operative care
Ovarian Cancer: Prognosis > 75% diagnosed with advanced disease. 5-year survival rate 46% If diagnosed earyl and localized-survival rate 93%
Radiation Therapy Body marked for external radiation Patient Education -Protects skin -diet -Side Effects
Internal Radiation Therapy Minimize exposure. Pregnant avoid exposure. Drainage and dressings. Check for dislodges implants. Educate family. Diversional Activities.
Why do you think ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among GYN cancers? Due to it usually not being diagnosed until it's late stage of development
Breast Cancer Most common malignancy of women in the U.S. Ranks second among cancer death in women.
Breast Cancer: Etiology Cause is not known. Primary risk factors: -Female -Older than 50 -N. American or Northern European decent -Family Hx
Breast Cancer: Occurence Males = 1% Females: 1 out of every 8
Breast Cancer: Pathophysiology Cancer occurs most often in the upper/outer quadrants of the breast Metastasis via the lymphatic system & blood stream Rapid-growing cancer have a much shorter preclinical course and a greater tendency to metastasize
Breast Cancer: Prognosis Positive/negative axillary lymph node involvement is the single most important prognosticator  After the disease spreads beyond the breast, the survival rate drops dramatically Prognosis is related to stage of disease and age
Breast Assessments: Frequency Monthly BSE’s beginning at age 20 CBE’s every 3 years between ages 20-40 CBE’s every year after age 40 Annual screening with mammograms beginning at age 40
Breast Cancer: S/S Skin reddened or dark, puckering or dimpling (skin appearance of orange-peel) of tissue, nipple discharge, axillary tenderness, nipple or skin retraction, peeling or flaking of the nipple, a lump or thickening that feels different from surrounding tissue
Breast Cancer: Procedures and Diagnostic tools Mammography Ultrasound MRI Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Sentinel lymph node mapping Biopsy
Which diagnostic test is used to confirm a diagnosis of breast cancer? Biopsies
Breast Cancer: Stages Staging is based on tumor size, node involvement & metastases. Stages 0, I, IIA -IIB, IIIA-IIIB-IIIC,IV
Breast Cancer: Stage 0 Cacinoma in situ. Confined to milk duct or lobule. No lymph nodes affected. No meatastasis
Breast Cancer: Stage I Tumor less than 2cm. Lymph nodes neg. No metastasis
Breast Cancer: Stage IIA Tumor less than 5cm. May have spread to up to 3 axillary nodes, but no distant cancer spread
Breast Cancer: Stage IIB Tumor can be >5cm. Can involve up to 3 lymph nodes. No organ metastasis.
Breast Cancer: Stage IIIA Tumor >5cm. Can involve 3-10 lymph nodes. No distant organ metastasis.
Breast Cancer: Stage IIIB Spread to chest wall or skin, regardless of size. Lymph node involvement with no distant metastasis
Breast Cancer: Stage IIIC Same as IIIB except more than 10 lymph node involvement
Breast Cancer: Stage IV Tumor of any size, with nodal involvement and metastasis to distant organs
Breast Cancer: Treatment Variables Tumor stage Pt age & health Hormonal Status Presence of Estrogen Receptors in tumor
Lumpectomy Removal of tumor
Simple Masectomy Removal of entire breast. Skin flap to cover area. Both pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles left intact.
Modified Radical Masectomy Overlying skin, nipple and pectoralis minor muscles are removed. Pectoralis major remains intact.
Breast Cancer: Radiation Therapy Maybe used as primary therapy or with surgery
Breast Cancer: Chemotherapy Typically used with lymph node involvement or metastasis to distant organs
Cancer of the Testis: Assesment/ Diagnosis Enlarged scrotum Firm, painless, Smooth mass Patient may speak of a feeling of heaviness.
Cancer of the Testies: Medical Management Radical inguinal orchiectomy Radiation or chemotherapy generally follow surgery A retroperitoneal lymph node dissection
Cancer of the Penis: Risk Factors Rare. Generally occurs in men over 50 years of age: -Uncircumcised -Poor hygiene -Hx of STD
Cancer of the Penis: Assessment/Diagnosis Painless tumor Wart like growth or ulceration on the glans under the prepuce Metastasis commonly occurs to the inguinal nodes and adjacent organs Biopsy confirms the diagnosis
Cancer of the Penis: Medical Managment Surgical Intervention
Cancer of the Penis: Nursing Interventions Emotional support Monitor Urine Output Elevate Scrotum Comfort Measures
What age group is most at risk for testicular cancer? Men age 15-35 y/o
Cancer of the Penis: Risk Factors Rare. Generally occurs in men over 50 years of age: -Uncircumcised -Poor hygiene -Hx of STD
Cancer of the Penis: Assessment/Diagnosis Painless tumor Wart like growth or ulceration on the glans under the prepuce Metastasis commonly occurs to the inguinal nodes and adjacent organs Biopsy confirms the diagnosis
Cancer of the Penis: Medical Managment Surgical Intervention
Cancer of the Penis: Nursing Interventions Emotional support Monitor Urine Output Elevate Scrotum Comfort Measures
What age group is most at risk for testicular cancer? Men age 15-35 y/o
Testicular Self Exam (TSE) Method for early detection of tumors of the testis Priority for care of patients who have or are at risk for a tumor of the testis Monthly basis beginning at age 15
Created by: jtzuetrong