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Lecture 18 & 21

World Civ II Final Review

The Failure of Collective Security All nations agree to support each other if one was attacked by an enemy
Spanish civil war Was proved the worthlessness of the League and its policy of collective security
1935 Hitler renounced the Versailles Treaty, openly rearming the G military
B, F, and A Was three great democracies, all support appeasement, abandon League of Nations completely
Appeasement If we give in to their demands now, they will stop their aggression and prevent a war\ Caused by worldwide depression, isolationism & fear of another great war
WWII: G blitzkrieg (lightning war) invades Poland on Sept 1, 1939
Spring, 1940 1940: F quickly falls to G aggression, stunning the world and leaving B as only defender Battle of B: Luftwaffe attempt to bomb B into surrender
June, 1941 G surprise R by invading, called Operation Barbarossa
Dec, 1941 J surprise attack on Pearl Harbor destroys A isolationism overnight, A joins Allies
Stalingrad, Summer 1942 Turning point of the war, G go on defensive
Second Front, June 1944 Allies land at Normandy in F on D-Day, begin to push G back As Allies move through, they find the death camps and liberate Holocaust survivors
May 8, 1945 (Victory in E Day): G officially surrenders
War in the Pacific J never had the industrial strength or raw materials (namely oil) to fight a prolonged war against A
1943-4: A slowly but surely pushing J back; fearing J wouldn’t surrender and would make US Invade mainland J, Pres Harry Truman ordered use of atomic weapons to break J spirit
Atomic war Truman faced possibility of over a million dead A troops and millions of J army and civilian deaths
August 6 and 9, 1945 Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima, Nagasaki
August 15 A and J forces agree to ceasefire, VJ Day (Victory in Japan Day)
WWII Overview 1. Humans now had power to destroy themselves w/ atomic weapons 2. Most deaths over 30m, 6m Jews killed 3. War involved all great powers & majority of the world’s nations, many now lying in ruins 4. Beginning of Cold War between Dem West & Com East
Marshall Plan, 1947 A-led plan for reconstruction of E, A began to rebuild Europe and ensure democratic govts survived in post-war period, A credit flowed into E, much of it forgiven if they remained democratic
Truman Doctrine Stalin’s USSR refused to allow E nations it liberated set up their own govts, Truman formulated A response to this new threat
NATO created April 4, 1949 North Atlantic Treaty Organization, military alliance of free countries of E, first true commitment of A since A Revolution to get involved in E affairs
The Cold War the struggle between the United States and the Soviet Union from 1945 until 1991
Korean War June 25, 1950 to July 27, 1953, first indirect conflict between Dem West (A, B, F) and Com East (Ch) E. Cuban Missile Crisis, Oct 1961: Khrushchev began placing ICBM’s on Cuba, aimed at A
Beginning of détente relaxation of diplomatic tensions between the superpowers
Decolonization E either gave independence to or lost control of its world colonies
4 Reasons for the change 1. Rising nationalism 2. WWII’s loss of E moral authority 3. Destruction of E 4. Growing opposition to having colonies by US and UN: FDR and Churchill’s Atlantic Charter agreed to the right of self-determination
The Third World poor, underdeveloped nations that were mostly former colonies of E
Third World Characteristics Economics: intense poverty everywhere, mostly agricultural or basic raw materials make up most of GDP, little or no education, dependent on world markets and foreign investment
Created by: ginganinjaem