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R.T Infections

Infections of the Respiratory Tract

Rhinovirus The most common cause of the common cold.
Influenza The most important differential diagnosis of the common cold. Causees fever, myalgia, sore throat, rhinitis, cough and secondary pneumonia in the elderly. Spread via microdroplets.
Influenza A Type of influenza that is responsible for epidemics (ANTIGEN SHIFT) Contains a haemagglutinin and neuraminidase component. Can be treated with oseltamivir within 48 hours of the first symptom.
Influenza B Type of influenza that is responsible for yearly, endemic infections (ANTIGEN DRIFT)
Stomatitis An infection of the tongue that is usually due to Herpes simplex virus.
Pharyngitis and Tonsilitis Can be caused by either virus or bacteria. Bacterial infections can be caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. Complications can include Scarlet fever, rheumatic heart disease and acute glomerulonephritis. Amoxicillin can be used.
Diptheria Caused by exotoxin-producing strains of Corynebacterium diptheriae colonising the pharynx, larynx and nose. Can cause life threatening respiratory obstruction (especially in children).
Cytomegalovirus A common virus acquired by children that lies dormant in lymphoid tissue, the spleen, salivary glands or kidney. Causes a glandular fever type illness in young adults.
Epstein-Barr Virus Replicated in B lymphocytes. Causes a glandular fever type illness in older children/young adults - fever, sore throat, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, anorexia and lethargy. No antiviral therapy available.
Laryngitis Most likely viral
Croup Presents as a brassy, barking cough in children between 1 and 3 years of age. There is inflammatory oedema of the subglottis. Commonly caused by the parainfluenza virus.
Acute Epiglottitis Caused by Hemophilus influenzae or Streptococci. An infection of the epiglottis which can cause severe airway obstruction. DO NOT EXAMINE THE AIRWAY!
Otitis externa A fungal or bacterial infection of the outer ear.
Otitis media An infection of the middle ear that can lead to chronic discharge and perforation of the eardrum.
Acute bronchitis A LRTI that is usually viral in origin (rhinovirus, influezna) and occurs in a seasonal epidemic.
Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis Usually a bacterial infection but can also be viral. A chronic productive cough for 3 months of the year for 2 years in a row or more.
Acute Bronchiolitis Affects infants < 1 year of age. 90% of the time it is viral (RSV, influenza) but it can be occasionally be due to mycoplasma or chlamydia.
Respiratory Syncytial Virus A common infectious agent of infants. Causes most cases of acute bronchiolitis. Causes airway obstruction and gas trapping. Can contribute to SIDS.
Pneumonia Symptoms include cough, fever, pleuritic chest pain and rigors. Hospital acquired - Enterobacteria Viral - influenxa, parainfluenxa, adenovirus. In children, it is usually viral.
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Has a similar presentation to influenza. Is common in S.E Asia.
Empyema A microbial infection of the pleural space resulting in a build-up of pus. Can secondary to pneumonia or associated with trauma,surgery, chest drains or oesophageal perforation.
Created by: Epoot