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World Religion exam3

Difference Western religions. Life is unpredictable, doesn't stay the same
Revelation Abrupt interference with normal scheme of things. Presentation of a new hypothesis that may or may not work
Agape term in new testament. Love that reaches out in unpredictable ways, for the sake of that which it is reaching towards. Focused on good of other, ex mother protects her children
Agapisticism C.S. Peirce, agape works in life systems and nature
Zoroastrianism Founded by Zoraster, a prohpet who wanted to make a difference, in the opposite direction of other prophets
Mazda Zoroastrian God of Light
Abraham Has revelation, will be father of great people. Went East to holy land in 2000 BCE. Has two sons- Isaac and Ishmael.
Isaac Son of Abraham and Sarah. Has two sons Jacob and Isaad
Jacob Son of Isaac. Also know as Israel. Has twelve sons, the twelve tribe's of Israel. Son Joseph goes to Egypt, favored by Pharaoh. Brothers/jews go to Egypt, at first treated well, then enslaved.
Moses Found by Pharaoh's daughter in basket in river. Leads Jews out of Egypt.
922 BCE division of Northern and Southern Tribes. The 2 south tribes are Juda.
721 BCE Assyrians conquer Northern Kingdom, ten tribes lost.
586 BCE Babylonians conquer southern kingdom, but it doesn't disappear. Some jews taken to Babylon, others left. Jerusalem temple destroyed.
538 BCE Persians conquer, allow Jews to return. Temples begins to be remade.
70 CE Temples has been completed but Romans Israeli revolt and Israel and temple are destroyed.
1948 CE Israel given back to Jews
Prophetic Guilds Earliest period of prophets. Group came together, went into group trance states. Made a lot of noise, spoke with power
Nathan Up start, no one like him before. Came out of desert into throne of King David. claimed king committed adultery, need to repent sin. He was so powerful that king repented. Prophets become political power. He didn't write in Bible.
Elijah COnfronts Baal prophets, called down fire from heaven to prove he is most powerful, carried to heaven in chariot of fire by God. He didn't write in Bible.
Amos Power of the written word. Message of justice. Let Justice roll down like a mighty river.
Hosea written word. Prophet of mercy and love. Showed mercy and love towards cheating wife until she finally saw the light, came back, is forgiven, have children.
I Isaiah Wrote before 721. One book in Bible but two authors. I= 1st 30 chapters. Before fall of Northern Kingdom. Powerful poet. Continued trance visions.
Jermiah Left in Juda. The weeping prophet. Poetic. Difficulties in Juda, brutality.
II Isaiah Taken to Babylon. Wrote servant songs, unnamed servant suffering on behalf of others- vicarious suffering. Prophecies of coming of Christ. Through suffering meaning can come for all.
Ezekiel Visionary prophet. All visions in Bible. Best known- Vision of Valley of Dry Bones. Prophecy between 586 and 538, in Babylon. Dry bones- goes to rim of valley, full of dry bones. hears voice to preach to dry bones, bones gather, reshape to human form
Pharisees liberal. legalistic. Believe in not just Biblical, but also post Biblical law. Worship is not just in temple, but local synagogues. Jesus debated with them.
Saducees Conservatives. Believed only place for worship in temples. Took Bible literally. No life after death as not in old testament. Biblical fundamentalists. Movement disintegrates, temple destroyed. Jesus debated with them.
Orthodox most traditional, rigorous, both Biblical and post-bib law. Exactly as defines. Literal
Reformed Descendents of pharisees. 1700-1800s. Not as rigorous. Range in level of practice. Liberals.
conservative in middle. orthodox too rigorous, absolute, but reformed too liberal.
Maimonides scholar of Judaism. 14th century. contemporary with Thomas Aquinas. Jewish thinker, important philosophically and legally.
Rosh Hashanah Jewish new year. calls people to repentence and atonement. 10 day holiday, about sept./oct. sound rams horn.
Yom Kippur atonement at end of Rosh Hashanah. Resolve to improve oneself, do what needs to to be better in new year.
Sukkot feast of tabernacles. When jews crossed desert to holy land, no temple or shelter. tabernacle=tent. about Nov./Dec.
Chanukah celebrate lights. post biblical, mid 2nd century. major rebellion against Eastern powers, pagan priests. celebrations only jewish, not pagan. fight, take back temple. eternal flame should have gone out, not enough oil, lasts 8 days. Post-biblical event.
Purim feast of Ester. when jews captive in Babylon, jewish Ester becomes wife of king of Babylon. Haman plots to kill jews, but Ester counter plots and kills Haman.
Basilica First Christian style building in western Rome, taken from Roman style. Rectangular with apse. 4th-9th century.
313 CE Christianity goes on list as legal to practice. Before, it was persecuted.
325 CE Christianity becomes official religion of ROme, COnstantine is first Christian King
Romanesque Type of church, build faith into building, cross-shaped, stone arches, rounded doors and windows which are minimal, Barrel vault ceiling.
Gothic Pointed arches. Ribbed vault ceilings and flying buttresses. stained glass windows- light, education.
Ekklesia Appears in New Testament. means church. Those who are called apart.
Gnosticism Believed immaterial, such as knowledge and spirit, is good and material is bad. Believed suffering was not real. Had their Bible. In conflict with Christianity.
The Acts of John John wanders with disciples, come to inn, no room, stay in barn. Disciples on floor can't sleep because of bugs. John preached to the bugs, they leave so can sleep. World of light is true, must get away from or command over material world.
Nicea First collection of Christian bishops trying to figure out truth about material and suffering vs immaterial. Why did Jesus suffer and John didn't.
Homo-ousios/Homoi-Ousios Is Jesu really God on Earth. Homo: Jesus is God on Earth. Homoi: In between, doesn't fit either heaven or Earth, carries messages. Homo won, Jesus is God
Chalcedon Jesus is matter and spirit, both God and Man
Pesach Holy day of passover, first born sons killed except Jews with lambs blood. One of Jewish holidays of Biblical event. Celebrate Moses leading Jews out of Egypt, across Sinai desert to holy land.
Hasidism Of two wings of Judaism- law and mysticism, this is the mystic movement of the 18th century, with dancing, music, arts. Like Fiddler on the roof. Influenced Martin Buber.
Vicarious Suffering Suffering on behalf of others. helps others. Like suffering servant, which may have foretold coming of Jesus.
Matthew Writes for Jewish population. Ties old and new testaments. Tries to convert Jews to Christianity. Used Mark and Q as source.
Mark earliest book of new testament. No story of resurrection, ends with crucifixion. Source of Mathew and Luke.
Luke Gentile- non-jew. Friend of Paul. Wrote Acts. Used Mark and Q as source.
Paul Jewish. Author of most of Letters. Writes to other churches. Christian missionary, went on three journeys, last one he went to Rome. beginning of Christian church.
Synoptic Gospel Mathew, Mark, Luke
John Different than others. No parables, different order. Book of signs. Same crucifixion story, but before it, wrote many conversations. Many signs and symbols, like gnosticism, but is not gnostic.
Icthus Fish, cryptogram. Each letter stands for a word. Jesus, Christ,Son, God, savior. 1st Christian creed, hide from Romans.
Augustine wrote The Confessions. Confessed all to God an public, instead of private confession. "Restless is my heart oh God until it comes to rest in thee" 5-6th century.
Thomas Aquinas wrote Suma Theologica. Influenced by Aristotle. 13th century. Responds to situation, instead of being orderly and extensive.
1054 AD split between Eastern and Western chruches. Greek and Eastern Orthodox vs. Catholic. Friendly parting, minor differences. West- focus on Pope, Basilica etc style churches. East- patriarchs of regional churches, central style churches
Martin Luther Protestant authority. Germany. "The ninety-five theses" nailed on door of church. 95 reasons Pope is wrong. Not a systemic thinker, respond to situation. Catholic structure. Salvation is faith alone, not works. Wrote letters of Paul.
Ulrich Zwingli Lead Catholic army in Eastern Switzerland. Died in combat. Foundation of reformed church.
John Calvin North Switzerland and France. Presbyterian church. wrote "The Institute." Used presbytery authority of elders in church.
John Wesley started Methodist church- split off of low churches of England. Missionary oriented. Anxious to get to common people. Appeal to lower classes. Circuit riders- sent preachers to U.S. rode on horses to all churches in area. 18th century.
Sacrament Ritual where God is especially present. Baptism and Eucharist or communion, also others.
Muhammad 7th century CE/AD. Starts Islam. orderly. clearly defined good vs bad.
Aslama transliteration of word from which Islam comes. Peace with God. Abrahamic religion that began with Ishmael. monotheistic
Qu'ran vision Mohammad had while wandering in desert. Primary document of Islam.
Hafiz A person who has memorized entire Qu'ran. can recite any passage on command
Surah chapter of quran
Aya verse of Quran
Khadija best known wife of Muhammad and first convert. Prominent in Islam.
Shahadah creed. Good Muslims recite creed. No God but Allah and Mohammad is prophet.
Salaht Prayer. pray 5 times a day.
Minaret Tower which Muezzin climbs to call to prayer
Muezzin Man who calls to prayer
Zakaht Giving to poor. percentage of income goes to giving.
Sawm fasting
Ramadan Holy month, fast while sun is up.
Ka'ba building around which pilgrims do 7 circuits
Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca
William James Author of “Varieties of Religious Experience.” Pragmatism, if it works, its true
Semiotics Study of signs. C.S. Peirce.
Phenomenology Science of experience
Rudolf Otto Wrote “The Idea of the Holy.” Experience of awesome power.
Hierophany Up and down world axis. Awesome poer at top or bottom, intersects horizontal plane on which we live.
Sir James Frazier "The Golden Bough" Science will replace religion
Karl Marx Religion is the sigh of the oppressed. Revolt against money controllers.
Sigmund Freud “The Future of an Illusion” Religion based on illusion, distorted view of reality. Based on father figure
Maya cosmic illusion of separation
moksha freedom from illusion of separation
Brahman One universal God of which everything is a part
Atman individual soul
ahimsa reverence for all life
anatman no soul doctrine of Buddhism. Remove definable soul.
tanha cause of suffering
satori The burst of enlightenment
Jen basic principles of balance within social networks etc.
chun-tzu people who have gift of making order out of chaos. Dave Royman
Tao movement of nature balancing itself
Wu-Wei actionless action. going with the flow
imam leader in prayer
622 Hijrah (journey) takes place. When Muhamman leaves Mecca for Medina, after questioning merchants. Then Muhammad takes Mecca by force.
632 Muhammad dies
Rumi famous poet of the middle ages. Established order of Whirling dervishes. go into trance state by twirling in circles. Wrote poetry in trance state.
Mulla Nasrudin Famous storyteller
Sunni majority sect. people of tradition- Hadith, teachings of Muhammad. Authority handed down through teaching of Hadith
Shiite minority sect, except in Iraq. Teaching of Muhammad. Muhammad's son in law Ali and other family murdered. Ali was intended to be authority. Imams have more power.
Sikhism Started by Nanak. Bring together Islam and Hinduism. Primary teaching- there is no Hinduism or Islam in
Nanak founder of Sikhism
Created by: Nicole24
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