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Miller 7 The Crusades

What three major groups all claimed Jerusalem in the Land of Palestine as their holy city? Christians, Muslims, and Jews
What importance was Jerusalem to Christians? To Christians, it was the place where Jesus was crucified and ascended into Heaven
What importance was Jerusalem to Muslims? To Muslims, it is the place where Mohammad ascended into Heaven
What importance was Jerusalem to Jews? To Jews,it was the site of the ancient temple built by Solomon, the Wailing Wall
When did the Arabs enter the city and take control? 600 A.D.
Who did the Arabs allow to visit Jerusalem? Christians and Jewish pilgrims
Jews and Christians could live in Palestine as long as they did what? Paid their taxes like everyone else
What was the problem of the First Crusade? Around 1095, a new group of Arabs took control of Jerusalem. They were the Seljuk Turks, who closed the city to Jewish and Christian pilgrims.
What was the solution of the First Crusade? Pope Urban II acted. He called for a crusade - a volunteer army whose goal was to retake Jerusalem. Many people volunteered. About 30,000 men left Western Europe to fight in Jerusalem.
What was the First Crusade like to the knights? For the knights, this was a chance to use their fighting skills, something they enjoyed and did well. They were delighted to have such a worthy battle to fight.
What was the First Crusade like to the peasants? For peasants, this was a chance in escape from their dreary life in the feudal system. The pope promised that if they died while fighting a holy crusade they would automatically be welcomed into Heaven.
What was the First Crusade like for others? For others, it was a chance to have an adventure, and perhaps even to get rich.
What is the sign of the Crusade? The Red Cross. Each crusader had a huge red cross, made out of fabric, stitched onto their shirts or armor. It made all crusaders irrespective of rank or background, appear to be a unified army.
Why was the Red Cross so important? It reminded the crusaders that they were fighting a holy cause. The red cross was added to flags and banners.
What were the results of the First Crusade? After about two years of harsh traveling, hunger, disease, freezing weather, and quarrels amongst themselves, the crusaders finally arrived in Jerusalem. After a two month siege of the city, the city fell. The crusaders had won back Jerusalem.
What happened to the crusaders? Some men stayed. Some headed home. Those who returned brought back new foods and new forms of culture.
What happened at the end of each other crusade? It was a short victory. Less than 50 years later, Muslims once again conquered Jerusalem. Again the pope called for a crusade to take back the city.
Second Crusade's date and success rate? 1147-1149. Not successful.
Third Crusade's date and success rate? 1189-1197. Not successful.
What was the Fourth Crusade's date? 1202-1204.
What was different about the Fourth Crusade? Instead of attacking Jerusalem, the crusaders attacked Constantinople.
How did they treat Constantinople? They stole statues, money, paintings, and jewelry. They burned libraries. They destroyed churches.
What was their excuse? Their excuse was that they needed money to defend Constantinople from the same fate as Jerusalem, as well as to fund the rescue of Jerusalem. The people of Constantinople did not find this excuse acceptable, and they were filled with hatred for the west.
The Peasant's Crusade 1096; conquer Holy Land
The First Crusade 1096-1099; conquer Holy Land, only successful
The Years After the First Crusade 1099-1144; Knights Templar and Hospitals created
The Second Crusade 1145-1149; Holy Land
The Third Crusade 1189-1197; Holy Land
The Fourth Crusade 1202-1204; Constantinople
The Children's Crusade 1212; bring goodness and innocence to quest
The Fifth Crusade 1212-1221; establish secure base in Egypt
The Sixth Crusade 1228; Holy Land
The Seventh Crusade 1248-1254; capture a base in Egypt, Holy Land
The Eighth Crusade 1270-1291; convert Bay of Tunis to Christians and recapture holy places in the Holy Land
What was the Children's Crusade? In 1212, it was a great tragedy. Many thousands of French and German kids died trying to reach Jerusalem. They thought God would help them because they were kids. Many died of hunger. Others froze to death.
What happened to the survivors that reached the Mediterranean Sea? They expected waters to part and let them pass. When this didn't happen those who were left returned home. Many children were sold into slavery.
What happened after the next 70 years? There were several other crusade attempts, but they were motivated more by personal gain than by religious purpose. None succeeded.
What happened in 1291? European leaders lost interest. Western Europe never admitted defeat, they simply stopped asking for new crusades.
Created by: MLP4Eternity



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