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Anatomy/Muscles

QuestionAnswer
The ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force? Contractility
The capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus? Excitability
the ability to bw streched? Extensibility
Ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched? Elasticity
Each skletal muscle is surrounded by a conncetive tissue sheath called? Epimysium
Another connective tissure located outside the epimysium? Fascia
A muscle is composed of numerous visible bundles called? Muscle Fasciculi (Fascicle)
Fasciculi (Fascicle) are surrounded by loose connective tissue called? Perumysium
The fasciculi are composed of single muscle cells called? Fibers
Each fiber is surrouned by a connective tissue sheath called? Endomysium
The cytoplasm of each fiber is filled with? Myofibrils
A threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other? Myofibrils
Myofibrils consist of 2 major kinds of protein fibers: Actin and Myosin Myofilaments
Resemble 2 minute strands of pearls twisted together? Actin
Resemble bundles of minute golf clubs? Myosin
Actin and myosin myofilaments form highly ordered units called? Sarcomeres
The basic stuctural and functional unit of the muscle? Saromere
The charge difference across the membrane is called? resting membrane potential
When a muscle cell is stimulated the membrane charateristics change briefly, the brief reversal back of the charge is called? action potential
Nerve cells that carry action potentials to the sketetal muscle fibers? motor neurons
Axons enter the muscles and branch, each branch that connects to the muscle forms? A neuromusclular junction or synapse
A single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers in innervates are called? a motor unit
the enlarged nerve terminal: presynaptoc terminal
Space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell : synaptic cleft
Each presynaptic terminal contains: synaptic vesicles
Synaptic vesicles secrete a neurotransmitter called? acetylcholine
The acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft between the neuron and muscle cell is rapidly broken down by an enzymes: Acetylcholinesterase
Occurs as action and myosin myofilaments slide past one another causing the sarcomeres to shorten: Muscle Contraction
Tje sliding of action mypfilaments past myosin myofilments during contraction is called? Sliding Filament Mechanism
Contraction of an entire muscle in responce to a stimulus that causes the avtion potential in one or more muscle fibers: Muscle Twitch
A muscle fiber will not respong to a stimulus unti that stimulus reaches a level called? threshold
The time between app;ication of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction is? the lag phase
Time of contraction: contraction phase
Time during which the muscle relaxes: relaxation phase
Muscle remains contracted without relaxing: Tetany
The increase in number of motor units being activated is called? recruitment
Needed for energy for muscle contraction: ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
ATP is: produced in the mitochondria, short-lived and unstable
when at rest they cant stockplie ATP but they can store another high engery molecule called? creatine phosphate
Anaerobic Respiration: without oxygen
Aerobic Respiration: with oxygen
The amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose and to replenish the depleted stores of creatine phosphate stores in muscle cells: Oxygen Debt
Results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cell: muscle fatigue
The length of the muscle does not change, but the amount of tension increases during the contraction process: Isometric (equal distance)
The amount of tension prodused by the muscle is constant during contraction, but the length of the muscle changes: Isotonic (equal tension)
Constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time: Muscle Tone
Contract quickly and fatigue quickly: Fast-Twitch Fibers (white meat of a chickens breast)
Contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue: Slow-Twitch Fibers (dark meat of a ducks breast or leg of chicken)
The most stationary end of the muscle: Origin (head)
The end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movment: Insertion
The portion of the muscle between the orgin and the insertion: belly
Muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements are called? synergists
Muscles that work in opposition to one another are called? antagonists
Among a group of synergists, if one muscle plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement, it is: the prime mover
occipitofrontales rasies eyebrows
orbicularis oculi closes the eyelid
orbiccularis oris puckers the lips
buccinator flattens the cheeks
the two "kissing muscles" orbicularis oris, buccinator
zygomatius smiling
levator labii superioris sneering
depressor anguli oris frowning
mastication chewing
4 pairs of chewing (mastication Masseter, Temporalis, 2 pterygoids
extrinsic tongue muscles moves the tongue
intrinsic tongue muscles changes shape of tongue
stero cleido mastoid roatates and abducts neck
found in each side of the back, responable for erect posture erector spinae
contract during inspiration external intercostals
contract during forced expirations internal intercostals
dome shaped muscle, responible for quiet breating diaphragm
abs rectus abdominis
white line of conn. tissue that extends from the sternum to the pelvis linea alba
cross the rextus abdominis in 3 places and form a segmemted look in abs tendinous inscription
muscles that move the vertebral column truck muscles
muscles that move the thorax thoracic muscles
muscles of the anterior abdominal wall flex and rotate the verebral column, compress the abdominal cavity, and hold in the abdominal viscera abdominal wall muscles
trapezius rotates scapula
pulls scapula anteriorly serratus anterior
the arm is attached to the thorax by the.. pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles
adducts and flexes the arm pectoralis major
medially rotaes, adducts, and powerfully extends the arm. "swimmers muscles" latissimus dorsi
attaches the humerus to the scapula and clavicle and is the major abductor of the upper limb. deltoid
extends the forearm, occupies the psoterior compartments of the arm. triceps brachii
flexes the forearm, occupies the anterior compartment of the arm. biceps brachii
flexes forearm brachilalis
flexes and supinates forearm brachioradialis
strong band of fibrous conn. tissure that conves the flexor and extensor tendons and holds them in place around the wrist so that they do not "bowstring" during muscle contraction retinaculum (bracelet)
flexor carpi flexes the wrist
extensor carpi entends the wrist
flexor digitorum flexs the fingers
extensor digitorum extends the fingers
gletues maximus buttocks
gluteus medius hip muscle and common injection site
extends the leg, anterior thigh muscles quadriceps fermoris
"tailors musscle", flexes the thigh sartorius
psoterior thigh muscles: flexes the leg and extends the thigh hamstring
form the claf muscles. they join together to form the calcaneal tendon. gastrocnemius and soleus
calcaneal tendon (achilles tendon) flexes the foot and toes
lateral muscles of the leg peroneus
Created by: CourtneyNacole