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7.6 Urinary Terms

Terminology of the Urinary System

arteriole small artery
bowman capsule enclosing structure surrounding each glomerulus
calyx (calix) cup-like collecting region of the renal pelvis
catheter tube for injecting or removing fluids
cortex outer region
creatinine waste product of muscle metabolism; nitrogenous waste excreted in the urine.
electrolyte a chemical element that carries an electrical charge when dissolved in water. essential to cellular function and transmission of impulses in nerve and muscle fibers
erythropoietin (EPO) a hormone secreted by the kidney to stimulate the production of red blood cells by bone marrow
filtration passive process whereby some substances, but not all, pass through a filter or other material. in the kidney, blood pressure forces materials through the filter (glomerulus)
glomerulus tiny ball of capillaries in cortex of the kidney
hilum depression or hollow in the part of an organ where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave
kidney one of two bean-shaped organs behind the abdominal cavity on either side of the backbone in the lumbar region
meatus opening or canal
medulla inner region
micturition urination; the act of voiding
nephron combination of glomerulus and renal tubule where filtration, reabsorption, and secretion take place in the kidney. it is the functional unit of the kidney, each capable of forming urine by itself.
nitrogenous waste substance containing nitrogen and excreted in urine
potassium (K+) an electrolyte important to body processes. the kidney regulates the concentration within the blood
reabsorption in this process, the renal tubules return materials necessary to the body back into the bloodstream
renal artery blood vessel that carries blood to the kidney
renal pelvis central collecting region in the kidney
renal tubule microscopic tube in the kidney in which urine is formed after filtration. in the renal tubule, the composition of urine is altered by the processes of reabsorption and secretion
renal vein blood vessel that carries blood away from the kidney and toward the heart
renin an enzymatic hormone synthesized, stored, and secreted by the kidney; it raises blood pressure by influencing vasoconstriction
sodium an electrolyte regulated in the blood and urine by the kidneys
trigone triangular area in the urinary bladder in which the ureters enter and the urethra exits
urea major nitrogenous waste product excreted in the urine
ureter tube leading from each kidney to the urinary bladder
urethra tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
uric acid a nitrogenous waste excreted in the urine
urinary bladder hollow muscular sac that holds and stores urine
urination process of expelling urine; also called micturition
voiding emptying of urine from the urinary bladder; urination
glomerulonephritis inflammation of the kidney glomerulus
interstitial nephritis inflammation of the renal interstitium (connective tissue that lies between the renal tubules)
nephrolithiasis kidney stones
nephrotic syndrome a group of clinical signs and symptoms caused by excessive protein loss in the urine
polycystic kidney disease (PKD) multiple fluid-filled sacs (cysts) within and of the kidney
pyelonephritis inflammation if the renal pelvis and renal medulla
renal cell sarcoma (hypernephroma) cancerous tumor of the kidney in adulthood
renal failure failure of the kidney to excrete wastes and maintain its filtration function
renal hypertension high blood pressure resulting from kidney disease
Wilms tumor malignant tumor of the kidney occurring in childhood
bladder cancer malignant tumor of the urinary bladder
diabetes insipidus inadequate secretion or resistance of the kidney to the action of antidiuretic hormone
diabetes mellitus inadequate secretion or improper utilization of insulin
blood urea nitrogen (BUN) measurement of urea levels in blood
creatinine clearance measures the rate at which creatinine is cleared from the blood by the kidney
CT scan X-ray image showing a detailed cross-sectional view of organs and tissues
kidneys, uterus, and bladder (KUB) X-ray examination (without contrast) of the kidneys, uterus, and bladder
renal angiography X-ray examination (with contrast) of the vascular system (blood vessels) of the kidney
retrograde pyelogram (RP) X-ray imaging of the kidneys, uterus, and bladder after injection of contrast through a urinary catheter into the uterus
voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) X-ray record (with contrast) of the urinary bladder and urethra obtained while the patient is voiding urine
ultrasonography process of imaging urinary tract structures using high-frequency sound waves
radioisotope scan image of the kidney after injecting into the blood stream a radioactive substance that concentrates in the kidney
magnetic resonance (MR) a magnetic field and radio waves produce images of the kidney and surrounding structures in all three planes of the body
cystoscopy direct visual examination of the urinary bladder with an endoscope (cystoscope)
dialysis process of separating nitrogenous waste materials from the bloodstream when the kidneys no longer function
lithotripsy urinary tract stones are crushed and either removed or pass from the body in urine
renal angioplasty dilation of narrowed areas in renal arteries
renal biopsy removal of kidney tissue for microscopic examination
renal transplantation surgical transfer of a kidney from a donor to a recipient
urinary catheterization passage of a flexible, tubular instrument through the urethra into the urinary bladder
Created by: vikingmedterm