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7SS EgyptStudyGuide

Ancient Egypt Study Guide

TermDefinition
Egypt In the north-eastern corner of Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea in the north and the Red Sea in the east.
Nubia Nubia is south of Egypt. The First Cataract is it's northern border. This is where modern-day Sudan is.
Sudan The country where ancient Nubia was. It is to the south of Egypt.
Nile River A river in Africa, flows north, through Egypt. Provides Egypt with water. Floods once each year at the same time each year.
Nile Delta The upside-down triangle shape where the Nile River meets the Mediterranean Sea. This area is also known as Lower Egypt.
Mediterranean Sea The sea that borders Egypt to the north.
Red Sea The sea that borders Egypt to the south.
1st Cataract An area of river rapids. Forms the border between Egypt and Nubia/ Sudan.
Upper Egypt Southern Egypt, called this because of the higher elevation.
Lower Egypt Northern Egypt, near the Nile River Delta. Called this because of the lower elevation.
Silt The rich mud-like substance that is left behind after flooding. Makes the land very fertile, allowing crops to produce 3-4 times as much as normal.
Inundation (Flood Season) When the Nile River overflows it's banks yearly. Leaves behind silt, fertilizing the land.
Irrigation A system of canals that provides water for crops.
Surplus When you have more than enough, like how Egypt had more than enough food (due to the fertile land), which allowed them to spend time and money on developing arts and monuments.
Red Land The desert. Seen as "bad".
Black Land The fertile land near the Nile River. Seen as "good".
"Gifts of the Nile" - Fresh water for drinking and irrigation - Variety of plant life (papyrus) - Variety of animal life - Transportation
Papyrus A reed that is used to make paper (along with other things).
Pharaoh An Egyptian ruler. People believed he was a god (Horus when alive, Osiris when dead).
Horus The falcon-headed god of the sky. Living Pharaoh.
Osiris God of the after life. Dead Pharaoh.
Set The "destroyer". Symbolized chaos and destruction. The "red land" was his territory.
Ma'at Represents balance and harmony. Very important to ancient Egyptians.
Dynasty A family of rulers. When the father dies, the son takes over.
Afterlife The life following this one. Could only get there if your heart was lighter than a feather. Also needed an intact body.
Ramses "The Great" famous pharaoh of ancient Egypt who built many monuments - Ruled for 60 years - Had over 100 children.
Abu Simbel The funeral temple of Ramses. Discovered by Belzoni.
Scribes Professional record keepers. About in the middle of the social classes.
Artisans Specialized workers (metalworkers, etc.), about in the middle of the social classes.
Farmers and Slaves Lowest of the social classes.
Giovanni Belzoni - Explored Egypt during the early 1800s - Engineer and circus performer - Collected Egyptian artifacts for the British museum - Discovered Abu Simbel.
Valley of the Kings A remote area of Egypt where many Pharaohs were buried in tombs carved out of the mountains.
Jean Francois Champollion - French linguist who used the Rosetta Stone to decipher ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphics
Hieroglyphics Egyptian writing. Jean Francois Champollion figured out how to read it.
Rosetta Stone - Artifact discovered in the Nile Delta in 1799 by French soldiers - Information copied in 3 different languages Allowed Champollion to break the hieroglyphic code! - Describes agreement between the priests and the “pharaoh” Ptolemy V
Howard Carter Discovered the tomb of "King Tut" (Tutankhamun)
Mummification The process of preserving a body. Involves removing organs, salt, and wrapping with linen bandages.
Tomb The place where someone is buried.
Book of the Dead The guidebook for a dead person (like a pharaoh) to get through the after life.
Narmer (Menes) - Ruler of Upper Egypt who conquered Lower Egypt. - Combined both into one kingdom from the Mediterranean Sea to the First Cataract. - Founded Egypt's first dynasty.
Zoser - Known as the pyramid builder (built the stepped pyramid)
Hatshepsut - The female pharaoh - Ruled for 20 years. - Really good at being a pharaoh! Lots of prosperity for Egypt!
Akhenaten - The Heretic Pharaoh - Forced Egyptians to worship only Aten, the sun god. - No one liked him!
Tutankhamen - The boy king - Died at 18 or 19 - Had to marry his half-sister (ewww!) - Undisturbed tomb full of riches discovered by Howard Carter in 1922.
Created by: Missutley