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Pharmacology

Final Exam

TermDefinition
biologics chemical agents that produce biological responses within the body; they are synthesized by cells of the human body, animal cells, or microorganisms
clinical pharmacology an area of medicine devoted to the evaluation of drugs used for human therapeutic benefit
formularies lists of drugs and drug recipes commonly used by pharmacists
natural alternative therapies herbs, natural extracts, vitamins, minerals or dietary supplements
pathophysiology the study of diseases and the functional changes occurring in the body as a result of diseases
pharmaceutics the science of preparing and dispensing drugs
pharmacology the study of medicines; the discipline pertaining to how drugs improve the health of the human body
therapeutics the branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of disease and suffering
bioavailability the ability of a drug to reach its target cells and produce its effect
chemical name strict chemical nomenclature used for naming drugs established the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC)
combination drugs drug product with more than one active generic ingredient
controlled substance in the United States, a drug restricted by the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. In Canada, a drug subject to guidelines outlined in Part III, Schedule G, of the Canadian Food and Drugs Act
generic name nonproprietary name of a drug assigned by the government
mechanism of action how a drug exerts its effects
pharmacologic classification method for organizing drugs on the basis of their mechanism of action (how they work pharmacologically)
prototype drug an original, well-understood drug model from which other drugs in a pharmacologic class have been developed
restricted drugs in Canada, a drug not intended for human use, covered in Part IV, Schedule H, of the Canadian Food and Drugs Act
scheduled drugs in the United States, a term describing a drug placed into on of five categories (I through V) based on its potential for misuse or abuse
therapeutic classification method for organizing drugs on the basis of their therapeutic usefulness
trade name proprietary name of a drug assigned by the manufacturer; also called the brand name or product name
allergic reaction a hyperresponse of body tissues to a foreign substance (allergen), in which patients experience uncomfortable and potentially serious symptoms, including difficulty breathing, pain, swelling, skin rash, and other unfavorable signs
anaphylaxis an acute allergic response to an antigen that results in severe hypotension and may cause death if untreated
apothecary system former system of weights and measures used by health care providers and pharmacists; replaced by the metric system
ASAP order means "as soon as possible"; a physician's order referring to the time frame that is often defined as less than 30 minutes
astringent effect the shrinkage of swollen membranes or binding together of body surface material
buccal route the administration of medications by the cheek or mouth
compliance taking a medication in the way it was prescribed by the practitioner; in the case of OTC drugs, following the instructions found on the label
enteral route the major route by which drugs enter the body through the digestive tract
enteric-coated hard, waxy coating that enables drugs to resist the acidity of the stomach; enables drugs to dissolve in the small intestine
household systems older system of measurement involving teaspoons, tablespoons, cups, drops, pounds, etc
intradermal (ID) route method of parenteral drug delivery in which drugs are injected into the dermis of the skin
intramuscular (IM) route method of parenteral drug delivery in which drugs are injected into layers of muscle beneath the skin
intravenous (IV) route method of parenteral drug delivery in which drugs are injected into the venous circulation
metric system the most common system of measurement
parenteral route the major route by which drugs enter the body other than the enteral or topical route
prn order Latin; pro re nata; physician's order; means 'to administer as required by the patient's condition'
routine orders standard order usually carried out within 2 hours of the time it was written by the physician
single order a physician's order for a drug that is to be given only once at a specific time; an example is a preoperative order
six rights of drug administration practical guidelines for nurses to use during drug preparation, delivery, and administration of drugs
standing order a physician's order written in advance of a situation, which is to be carried out under specific circumstances
STAT order comes from statim, the Latin word meaning 'immediately'; the time frame between writing the STAT order and administering the drug may be 5 minutes or less, depending on facility rules
subcutaneous (SC or SQ) route method of parenteral drug delivery in which drugs are injected into the hypodermis of the skin
sublingual (SL) route method of enteral drug delivery in which drugs are placed under the tongue
sustained-release tablets or capsules that are designed to dissolve very slowly
three checks of drug administration checks used by nurses together with the six rights to help ensure patient safety and drug effectivness
topical route the route by which drugs are placed directly onto the skin and associated membranes
transdermal method of drug delivery, usually by a patch, in which drugs are absorbed across the layers of the skin for the purpose of entering the bloodstream
transmucosal method of topical drug delivery in which drugs are applied directly to mucosal membranes, including the nasal and respiratory pathways and vagina
absorption the process of moving a drug across body membranes
agonists drugs that are capable of binding with receptors in order to cause a cellular response
antagonists drugs that block the response of another drug
biotransformation the chemical conversion of drugs from one form to another that may result in increased or decreased activity
distribution the process of transporting drugs through the body
efficacy the effectiveness of a drug in producing a more intense response as its concentration is increased
enterohepatic recirculation recycling of drugs and other substances by the circulation of bile through the intestine and liver
excretion the process of removing substances from the body
first-pass effect a mechanism whereby drugs are absorbed across the intestinal wall and enter into blood vessels, known as the hepatic portal circulation, which carries blood directly to the liver
half-life (t1/2) the length of time required for a drug to decrease its concentration in the plasma by one half of the original amount
metabolism the sum total of all chemical reactions in the body or an organ (for example, the liver)
pharmacodynamics the study of how the body responds to drugs and natural substances
pharmacokinetics the study of what the body does to drugs
potency the power or strength of a drug at a specified concentration or dose
prodrugs drugs that become more active after they are metabolized
receptor the structural component of a cell to which a drug binds in a dose-related manner to produce a response
receptor theory a cellular mechanism by which most drugs produce their effects
assessment appraisal of a patient's condition that involves gathering and interpreting data
etiologies causes of the patient's disease or condition
evaluation criteria objective assessment of the effectiveness and impact of interventions
evaluation phase part of the nursing process that provides an objective assessment of the effectiveness of the interventions
goal an objective that the patient or nurse seeks to attain or achieve
implementation phase part of the nursing processing during which the nurse carries out activities that assist in accomplishing established goals
interventions action that produces an effect or that is intended to alther the course of a disease or condition
nursing diagnosis clinically based judgement about the patient and his or her response to health and illness
nursing process five-part decision-making system that includes assessment, nursing diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation
outcome objective measure of goals
planning phase stage of the nursing process that links strategies or interventions to established goals and outcomes
botanicals a plant extract used to treat or prevent illness
complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) general term for treatments that consider the health of the whole person and promote disease prevention
Dietary Supplement and Nonprescription Drug Consumer Protection Act law that requires companies that market herbal and dietary supplements to include their address and phone number on the product labels so consumers can report adverse events
Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 primary law in the United States regulating herb and dietary supplements
dietary supplements a nondrug substance regulated by the DSHEA
herbs plants with a soft stem that is used in healing or as a seasoning
specialty supplements a nonherbal dietary supplement used to enhance body functions
addiction the continued use of a substance despite its negative health and social consequences
alcohol intoxication a condition of altered mental and physical function resulting from drinking more alcoholic beverages within a time frame than the body can tolerate
attention deficit disorder (ADD) consistent difficulty in focusing attention on a task for a sufficient length of time
cross-tolerance the process of adapting to a new drug as a result of having already been exposed to a related drug
designer drugs drugs that are produced in a laboratory and are intended to mimic the effects of other psychoactive controlled substances
Narcolepsy condition characterized by uncontrolled daytime sleepiness
Opioid natural or synthetic morphine-like substance obtained from the unripe seeds of the poppy plant
physical dependence the condition of experiencing unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when a substance is discontinued
psychedelics substances that alter perception and reality
psychological dependence an unpleasant, intense craving for a drug after it has been withdrawn
tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) the active chemical in marijuana
tolerance the process of adapting to a drug over time and requiring higher doses to achieve the same effect
withdrawal syndrome unpleasant symptoms experienced when a physically dependent client discontinues the use of an abused drug
acetylcholine (Ach) primary neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system; also present at somatic neuromuscular junctions and at parasympathetic and sympathetic preganglionic nerves
adrenergic a term relating to nerves that release norepinephrine or epinephrine
adrenergic agent another name for a sympathomimetic drug
adrenergic blockers a drug that blocks the actions of the sympathetic nervous system
adrenergic drugs another name for a sympathomimetic drug
alpha receptor type of subreceptor found in the sympathetic nervous system
anticholinergics drugs that inhibit the action of acetylcholine at its receptor
beta receptor type of subreceptor found in the sympathetic nervous system
cholinergic a term relating to nerves that release acetylcholine
cholinergic blockers a drug that blocks the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system
cholinergic drugs another name for parasympathomimetic drugs
ganglia collections of neuron cell bodies located outside the CNS
muscarinic type of cholinergic receptor found in smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
nicotinic type of cholinergic receptor found in ganglia of both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
norepinephrine primary neurotransmitter in the sympathetic nervous system
parasympathetic nervous system portion of the autonomic system that is active during periods of rest and digestion
parasympathomimetics drugs that mimic the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system
sympathetic nervous system portion of the autonomic system that is active during periods of stress and which produces the fight-or-flight response
sympatholytic a drug that blocks the actions of the sympathetic nervous system
sympathomimetic a drug that mimics the actions of the sympathetic nervous system
antidepressants drugs used for the treatment of depression and a range of anxiety disorders, including panic, obsessive-compulsive, social phobia, and post-traumatic stress disorders
anxiety state of apprehension and autonomic nervous system activation resulting from exposure to a nonspecific or unknown cause
anxiolytics drugs that relieve anxiety
barbiturates class of drugs derived from barbituric acid; they act as CNS depressants and are used for their sedative and antiseizure effects
benzodiazepines class of drugs used to treat anxiety and insomnia
black box warning warning label surrounded by a black border and issued by the FDA to emphasize the important and serious life-threatening risks associated with the use of the drug
CNS depressants drugs that lower neuronal activity within the CNS
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) difficult-to-control, excessive anxiety that lasts 6 months or more
insomnia the inability to fall asleep or stay asleep
limbic system area in the brain responsible for emotion, learning, memory, motivation, and mood
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) anxiety characterized by recurrent, intrusive thoughts or repetitive behaviors that interfere with normal activities or relationships
panic disorder anxiety characterized by intense feelings of immediate apprehension, fearfulness, terror, or impending doom
phobias fearful feelings attached to situations or objects
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) anxiety characterized by a sense of helplessness and the reexperiencing of a traumatic event, for example, war, physical or sexual abuse, natural disasters, or murder
rebound insomnia increased sleeplessness that occurs when long-term antianxiety or hypnotic medication is discontinued
reticular activating system (RAS) the brain structure that projects from the brainstem and thalamus to the cerebral cortex; responsible for sleeping and wakefulness and performs an alerting function
reticular formation a network of neurons found along the entire length of the brainstem connected with the reticular activating system
sedative-hypnotic drug that produces a calming effect when given in lower doses, and produces sleep when given in higher doses
sedatives drugs that relax or calm the patient
antidepressants drugs used for the treatment of depression and a range of anxiety disorders, including panic, obsessive-compulsive, social phobia, and post-traumatic stress disorders
attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) a disorder typically diagnosed in childhood and adolescence characterized by hyperactivity as well as attention, organization, and behavior control issues
bipolar disorder a disorder characterized by extreme and opposite feelings, such as euphoria and depression or calmness and rage; also called manic depression
dysthymic disorder less severe type of mood disorder that may prevent a person from feeling well or functioning normally
major depressive disorder a disorder characterized by at least five symptoms of depression
monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) drugs inhibiting monoamine oxidase, an enzyme that terminates the actions of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and serotonin
mood disorder a disorder involving a change in behavior, such as major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder
mood stabilizers drugs that level mood to treat bipolar disorder and mania
selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) drugs that selectively inhibit the reuptake of serotonin into nerve terminals
serotonin syndrome (SES) a set of signs and symptoms associated with overmedication with antidepressants
serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) drugs that block the recycling of two neurotransmitters, serotonin and norepinephrine
tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) drugs with a three-ring chemical structure that inhibit the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into nerve terminals
akathisia uncontrolled limb and body movements
extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) symptoms where muscles become very rigid because of overmedication with antipsychotics or by lack of dopamine function in the corpus striatum
negative symptoms symptoms that subtract from normal behavior; signs that are used to assist with the diagnosis of schizophrenia
neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) a potentially fatal condition caused by some antipsychotic medications; symptoms include an extremely high body temperature, drowsiness, changing blood pressure, irregular heartbeat, and muscle rigidity
neuroleptics drugs used to treat "nervous-type" conditions such as psychoses
parkinsonism degenerative disorder of the nervous system caused by a deficiency of the brain neurotransmitter dopamine; this deficiency results in the disturbances of muscle movement
positive symptoms symptoms that add on to normal behavior; signs that are used to assist with the diagnosis of schizophrenia
schizoaffective disorder disorder with symptoms similar to schizophrenia and mood disorders
schizophrenia type of psychosis characterized by abnormal thoughts and thought processes, withdrawal from other people and the outside environment, and apparent preoccupation with one's own mental state
tardive dyskinesia involuntary movements of facial muscles and the tongue that occur due to long-term antipsychotic therapy
acetylcholinesterase (AchE) an enzyme that degrades acetylcholine within the synapse, enhancing the effects of the neurotransmitter
Alzheimer's disease (AD) most common dementia, characterized by loss of memory, confusion, disorientation, and loss of judgment; hallucinations and delusions may also occur
Dementia degenerative disorder characterized by progressive memory loss, confusion, and the inability to think or communicate effectively
Dystonia muscle spasm characterized by rigidity and abnormal, occasionally painful, movements or postures
multiple sclerosis (MS) autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system; a condition in which antibodies slowly destroy tissues in the brain and spinal cord
neuromuscular blocking agents drugs that bind to acetylcholine receptors, preventing contraction of skeletal muscle
parkinsonism degenerative disorder of the nervous system caused by a deficiency of the brain neurotransmitter dopamine; this deficiency results in the disturbances of muscle movement
spasticity condition in which certain muscle groups remain in a continuous contracted state
action potential an electrical signal of a single cell (muscle or nerve) generated by the opening and closing of special ion channels located on the cell's membrane
Convulsions uncontrolled muscle contractions or spasms that occur in the face, torso, arms, or legs
Eclampsia condition in which seizures and/or a coma develop in a patient with preeclampsia
Epilepsy disorder of the CNS characterized by seizures and/or convulsions
febrile seizures abnormal state of neuronal discharge resulting from high fever
generalized seizures seizures that travel throughout the entire brain on both sides
partial seizures that start on one side of the brain and travel a short distance before stopping
partial (focal) seizures seizures that start on one side of the brain and travel a short distance before stopping
pre-eclampsia condition in which hypertension develops because of pregnancy or recent pregnancy. Hypertension is accompanied by proteinuria and/or edema
seizure symptom of epilepsy characterized by abnormal neuronal discharges within the brain
status epilepticus condition characterized by repeated seizures
analgesic drug used to reduce or eliminate pain
aura sensory cue such as bright lights, smells, or tastes that precede a migraine
Aδ fibers nerves that transmit sensations of sharp pain
Bradykinin chemical mediator of pain released following tissue damage
C fibers nerves that transmit dull, poorly localized pain
cyclooxygenase (COX) key enzyme in the prostaglandin metabolic pathway that is blocked by aspirin and other NSAIDs
endogenous opioids chemicals produced naturally within the body that decrease or eliminate pain; they closely resemble the actions of morphine
migraine severe headache preceded by auras that may include nausea and vomiting
narcotic natural or synthetic drug related to morphine; may be used as a broader legal term referring to hallucinogens (LSD), CNS stimulants, marijuana, and other illegal drugs
nociceptor receptor connected with nerves that receive and transmit pain signals to the spinal cord and brain
opiate natural substance extracted from the poppy plant
opioid natural or synthetic morphine-like substance obtained from the unripe seeds of the poppy plant
patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) use of an infusion pump to deliver a prescribed amount of pain relief medication over a designated time
prostaglandins chemicals released after tissue damage, leading to pain, inflammation, and other body reactions
substance P neurotransmitter within the spinal cord involved in the neural transmission of pain
tension headache common type of head pain caused by stress and relieved by nonnarcotic analgesics
amides type of chemical linkage found in some local anesthetics involving carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen (—NH—CO—)
anesthesia medical procedure involving drugs that block the transmission of nerve impulses and cause loss of sensation and/or consciousness
esters type of chemical linkage found in some local anesthetics involving carbon and oxygen (—CO—O—)
general anesthesia medical procedure that produces loss of sensation throughout the entire body and unconciousness
local anesthesia loss of sensation to a relatively small part of the body without loss of consciousness
atherosclerosis a buildup of fatty substances and loss of elasticity of the arterial walls
bile acid chemicals secreted in bile that aid in the digestion of fats
high-density lipoprotein (HDL) lipid-carrying particle in the blood that contains high amounts of protein and lower amounts of cholesterol; considered to be "good" cholesterol
HMG-CoA reductase primary enzyme in the biochemical pathway for the synthesis of cholesterol
Hypercholesterolemia high levels of cholesterol in the blood
Hyperlipidemia excess amounts of lipids in the blood
Lecithin phospholipid that is an important part of cell membranes
Lipoprotein substance carrying lipids in the bloodstream
low-density lipoprotein (LDL) lipid-carrying particle that contains lower amounts of protein and high amounts of cholesterol; considered to be "bad" cholesterol
phospholipid type of lipid that contains two fatty acids, a phosphate group, and a chemical backbone of glycerol
plaque fatty material that builds up in the lining of blood vessels and may lead to hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, or angina
steroid type of lipid that consists of four rings and comprises certain hormones and drugs
steroid nucleus ring structure common to all steroids
therapeutic lifestyle changes nondrug changes which, when implemented, can reduce blood cholesterol levels
triglyceride type of lipid that contains three fatty acids and a chemical backbone of glycerol
very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) lipid-carrying particle that is converted to LDL in the liver
aldosterone hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that increases sodium reabsorption in the distal tubule of the kidney
angiotensin II chemical released in response to falling blood pressure that causes vasoconstriction and release of aldosterone
angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) enzyme responsible for converting angiotensin I to angiotensin II
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) hormone produced by the hypothalamus that stimulates the kidneys to conserve water
baroreceptors nerves located in the walls of the atria, aortic arch, vena cava, and carotid sinus that sense changes in blood pressure
bradycardia a condition of slow heartbeat
calcium channel blocker (CCB) a drug that blocks the flow of calcium ions into myocardial cells
cardiac output amount of blood pumped by each ventricle in 1 minute
diastolic pressure blood pressure during the relaxation phase of heart activity
diuretic drug that increases urine flow
electrolytes charged substances in the blood, such as sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and phosphate
false neurotransmitter chemical that simulates a natural neurotransmitter but does not produce the same physiologic effect
hyperkalemia high potassium levels in the blood
hypertension (HTN) high blood pressure
hypokalemia low potassium levels in the blood
lumen the cavity or channel of a hollow tube such as a blood vessel
orthostatic hypotension fall in blood pressure that occurs when someone changes position from recumbent to upright
peripheral resistance the amount of friction encountered by blood as it travels through the vessels
reflex tachycardia temporary speeding up of heart rate that occurs when blood pressure falls
renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system series of enzymatic steps by which the body raises blood pressure
secondary hypertension high blood pressure caused as a result of another disorder
stepped care a systematic approach to treatment of hypertension
systolic pressure blood pressure during the contraction phase of heart activity
vasomotor center area of the medulla that controls baseline blood pressure
afterload pressure that must be overcome for the ventricles to eject blood from the heart
contractility the strength by which the myocardial fibers contract
heart failure (HF) disease in which the heart muscle cannot contract with sufficient force to meet the body's metabolic needs
inotropic effect change in the strength or contractility of the heart
natriuretic peptide (hBNP) hormone that increases the urinary excretion of sodium and dilates blood vessels
peripheral edema swelling in the limbs, particularly the feet and ankles, due to an accumulation of interstitial fluid
phosphodiesterase enzyme in muscle cells that cleaves phosphodiester bonds; its inhibition increases myocardial contractility
preload degree of stretch of the cardiac muscle fibers just before they contract
atrioventricular (AV) node mass of cardiac tissue that receives electrical impulses from the SA node and conveys them to the ventricles
atrioventricular bundle specialized cardiac tissue that receives electrical impulses from the AV node and sends them to the bundle branches also known as the bundle of His
automaticity ability of certain myocardial cells to spontaneously generate an action potential
bundle branches electrical conduction pathway in the heart leading from the AV bundle and through the wall between the ventricles
calcium ion channel pathway in a plasma membrane through which calcium ions enter and leave
cardioversion/defibrillation conversion of fibrillation to a normal heart rhythm
depolarization condition in which the plasma membrane charge is changed such that the inside is made less negative
dysrhythmia abnormality in cardiac rhythm
ectopic foci/pacemakers cardiac tissue outside the normal cardiac conduction pathway that generates action potentials
electrocardiogram (ECG) device that records the electrical activity of the heart
fibrillation type of dysrhythmia in which the chambers beat in a highly disorganized manner
polarized condition in which the inside of a cell is more negatively charged than the outside of the cell
potassium ion channel pathway in a plasma membrane through which potassium ions enter and leave
Purkinje fibers electrical conduction pathway leading from the bundle branches to all portions of the ventricles
refractory period time during which the myocardial cells rest and are not able to contract
sinoatrial (SA) node pacemaker of the heart located in the wall of the right atrium
sinus rhythm number of beats per minute normally generated by the SA node
sodium ion channel pathway in a plasma membrane through which sodium ions enter and leave
supraventricular lying above the ventricles or in the atria
activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) blood test used to determine how long it takes clots to form to regulate heparin dosage
angina pectoris acute pain in the chest on physical or emotional exertion due to inadequate oxygen supply to the myocardium
anticoagulant an agent that inhibits the formation of blood clots
clotting factors substances contributing to the process of blood clotting
coagulation the process of blood clotting
coagulation cascade a complex series of steps by which blood flow stops
embolus a blood clot carried in the bloodstream
fibrin an insoluble protein formed from fibrinogen by the action of thrombin in the blood-clotting process
fibrinogen blood protein converted to fibrin by the action of thrombin in the blood-clotting process
fibrinolysis removal of a blood clot
glycoprotein IIb/IIIa enzyme responsible for platelet aggregation
hemostasis the slowing or stopping of blood flow
hemostatics drugs used to prevent and treat excessive bleeding from surgical sites
international normalized ratio (INR) laboratory value used to monitor the degree of blood anticoagulation during warfarin therapy
low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) heparin-like drugs that inhibit blood clotting
plasmin enzyme formed from plasminogen that dissolves blood clots
plasminogen protein that prevents fibrin clot formation
prothrombin blood protein converted to thrombin in the blood-clotting process
prothrombin time (PT) blood test used to determine the time needed for plasma to clot, used to regulate warfarin dosage
thrombin enzyme formed in coagulating blood from prothrombin; it converts fibrinogen to fibrin, which forms the basis of a blood clot
thromboembolic disorders diseases associated with the formation of blood clots
thrombolytics drugs used to dissolve existing blood clots
thrombus blood clot
tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) natural enzyme and a drug that dissolves blood clots
angina pectoris acute pain in the chest on physical or emotional exertion due to inadequate oxygen supply to the myocardium
atherosclerosis a buildup of fatty substances and loss of elasticity of the arterial walls
cerebrovascular accident/stroke an acute condition of a blood clot or bleeding in a vessel in the brain
coronary arterial bypass graft (CABG) surgery surgical procedure performed to restore blood flow to the myocardium by using a section of the saphenous vein or internal mammary artery to go around the obstructed coronary artery
coronary arteries vessels that bring oxygen and nutrients to the myocardium
hemorrhagic stroke type of stroke caused by bleeding from a blood vessel in the brain
myocardial infarction (MI) medical emergency in which a blood clot blocks a portion of a coronary artery
myocardial ischemia condition in which there is a lack of blood supply to the myocardium due to a constriction or obstruction of a blood vessel
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) procedure by which a balloon-shaped catheter is used to compress fatty plaque against an arterial wall for the purpose of restoring normal blood flow
plaque fatty material that builds up in the lining of blood vessels and may lead to hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, or angina
stable angina type of angina that occurs in a predictable pattern, usually relieved by rest
thrombotic stroke type of stroke caused by a blood clot blocking an artery in the brain
unstable angina type of angina that occurs frequently with severe symptoms and which is not relieved by rest
vasospastic (Prinzmetal's) angina type of angina in which decreased myocardial blood flow is caused by spasms of the coronary arteries
anaphylaxis an acute allergic response to an antigen that results in severe hypotension and may cause death if untreated
antigen a foreign organism or substance that induces the formation of antibodies
cardiogenic shock type of shock caused when the heart is diseased such that it cannot maintain circulation to the tissues
colloids type of IV fluid replacement solution consisting of large protein molecules that are unable to cross membranes
crystalloids type of IV fluid replacement solution that resembles blood plasma and is capable of crossing membranes
hypovolemic shock type of shock caused by loss of fluids such as occurs during hemorrhaging, extensive burns, or severe vomiting or diarrhea
inotropic drug medication that changes the force of contraction of the heart
neurogenic shock type of shock resulting from brain or spinal cord injury
septic shock type of shock caused by severe infection in the bloodstream
shock condition in which there is inadequate blood flow to meet the body's needs
acidosis condition of having too much acid; plasma pH below 7.35
aldosterone hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that increases sodium reabsorption in the distal tubule of the kidney
alkalosis condition of having too much base; plasma pH above 7.45
carbonic anhydrase enzyme that forms carbonic acid by combining carbon dioxide and water
diuretic drug that increases urine flow
electrolytes charged substances in the blood, such as sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and phosphate
erythropoietin hormone secreted by the kidney that stimulates red blood cell production
filtrate fluid in the nephron that is filtered at Bowman's capsule
hyperkalemia high potassium levels in the blood
hypernatremia high sodium level in the blood
hypokalemia low potassium levels in the blood
hyponatremia low levels of sodium in the blood
nephron functional unit of the kidney
pH a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution
reabsorption movement of substances from the kidney tubule back into the blood
renal failure decrease in the kidneys' ability to maintain electrolyte and fluid balance and excrete waste products
secretion movement of substances from the blood into the kidney tublule after filtration has occurred
active immunity stimulating the body to produce antibodies through the administration of a vaccine
alternate-day therapy taking a drug every other day in order to minimize adverse effects
anaphylaxis an acute allergic response to an antigen that results in severe hypotension and may cause death if untreated
antibody protein produced by the body in response to an antigen; used interchangeably with the term immunoglobulin
Antigen a foreign organism or substance that induces the formation of antibodies
B cell type of lymphocyte that is essential for the humoral immune response
biologic response modifiers natural substances that are able to enhance or stimulate the immune system
boosters an additional dose of a vaccine given months for years after the initial dose to increase the effectiveness of the vaccine
Cushing's syndrome condition caused by excessive corticosteroid secretion by the adrenal glands or by overdosage with corticosteroid medication
cyclooxygenase (COX) key enzyme in the prostaglandin metabolic pathway that is blocked by aspirin and other NSAIDs
cytokines chemicals produced by white blood cells, such as interleukins, leukotrienes, interferon, and tumor necrosis factor, that guide the immune response
cytotoxic T cells type of lymphocyte that directly attacks and destroys antigens
helper T cells type of lymphocyte that coordinates both the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses and that is the target of the human immunodeficiency virus
histamine chemical released by mast cells in response to an antigen; causes dilation of blood vessels, smooth muscle constriction, tissue swelling, and itching
humoral immunity a specific body defense mechanism involving the production and release of antibodies
immunoglobulin (Ig) protein produced by the body in response to an antigen; used interchangeably with the term antibody
immunosuppressant any drug, chemical, or physical agent that lowers the natural immune defense mechanisms of the body
inflammation nonspecific body defense that occurs in response to an injury or antigen
lymphocyte type of white blood cell formed in lymphoid tissue
mast cells connective tissue cell located in tissue spaces that releases histamine following injury
passive immunity administration of antibodies; provides short-term immunity
plasma cells type of cell derived from B cells that produces antibodies
salicylism poisoning due to aspirin and aspirin-like drugs
T cells type of lymphocyte that is essential for the cell-mediated immune response
Titer measurement of the amount of a substance in the blood
Toxoid toxin that has been chemically modified to remove its harmful nature but is still able to cause an immune response in the body
transplant rejection when the immune system recognizes a transplanted tissue as being foreign and attacks it
vaccination/immunization receiving a vaccine or toxoid to prevent disease
vaccine preparation of microorganism particles that is injected into a patient to stimulate the immune system with the intention of preventing disease
acquired resistance when a microbe is no longer affected by a drug following treatment with anti-infectives
antagonism type of drug interaction in which one drug inhibits the effectiveness of another
anti-infective general term for any medication effective against pathogens
antibiotic substance produced by a microorganism that inhibits or kills other microorganisms
bacteriocidal substance that has ability to kill bacteria
bacteriostatic substance that can inhibit the growth of bacteria
beta-lactam ring chemical structure found in most penicillins and some cephalosporins
beta-lactamase/penicillinase enzyme present in certain bacteria that is able to inactivate many penicillins and some cephalosporins
broad-spectrum antibiotic anti-infective that is effective against many different gram-positive and gram-negative organisms
chemoprophylaxis use of a drug to prevent an infection
culture and sensitivity (C&S) testing laboratory test used to identify bacteria and to determine which antibiotic is most effective
host flora normal microorganisms found in or on a patient
mutations permanent, inheritable changes to DNA
narrow-spectrum antibiotic anti-infective that is effective agains only one or a small number of organisms
nephrotoxicity an adverse effect on the kidneys
nosocomial infections infections acquired in a health care setting such as a hospital, physician's office, or nursing home
ototoxicity an adverse effect on hearing
pathogen organism that is capable of causing disease
pathogenicity ability of an organism to cause disease in humans
photosensitivity condition that occurs when the skin is very sensitive to sunlight
plasmid small piece of circular DNA found in some bacteria that is able to transfer resistance from one bacterium to another
red-man syndrome rash on the upper body caused by certain anti-infectives
superinfections condition caused when a microorganism grows rapidly as a result of having less competition in its environment
toxin chemical produced by a microorganism that is able to cause injury to its host
tubercles cavity-like lesions in the lung characteristic of infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis
virulence the severity of disease that an organism in able to cause
antiretroviral type of drug effective against retroviruses
capsid protein coat that surrounds a virus
dermatophytic superficial fungal infection
dysentery severe diarrhea that may include bleeding
fungi kingdom of organisms that includes mushrooms, yeasts, and molds
helminth type of flat, round, or segmented worm
highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) type of drug therapy for HIV infection that includes high doses of multiple medications that are given together
host an organism that is being infected by a microbe
influenza common viral infection of the respiratory system; often called flu
intracellular parasite an infectious microbe that lives inside host cells
malaria tropical disease characterized by severe fever and chills; caused by the protozoan Plasmodium
mycoses diseases caused by fungi
protozoan single-celled microorganism
reverse transcriptase viral enzyme that converts RNA to DNA
superficial mycoses fungal diseases of the hair, skin, nails, and mucous membranes
systemic mycoses fungal diseases affecting internal organs
virus nonliving particle containing RNA or DNA that is able to cause disease
yeast type of fungus that is unicellular and divides by budding
adenoma benign tumor of glandular tissue
adjuvant chemotherapy technique in which antineoplastics are administered after surgery or radiation to effect a cure
alkylation process by which certain chemicals attach to DNA and change its structure and function
alopecia hair loss
anemia shortage of functional red blood cells
benign neither life-threatening nor fatal
biologic response modifiers natural substances that are able to enhance or stimulate the immune system
cancer malignant disease characterized by rapidly growing, invasive cells that spread to other regions of the body and eventually kill the host
carcinogen any physical, chemical, or biological factor that causes or promotes cancer
chemotherapy drug treatment of cancer
folic acid B vitamin that is a coenzyme in protein and nucleic acid metabolism; also known as folate
glioma malignant tumor of the brain
leukemia cancer of the blood characterized by overproduction of white blood cells
lipoma benign tumor of fat tissue
Liposomes small sacs of lipids designed to carry drugs inside them
Lymphoma cancer of lymphatic tissue
Malignant life threatening or fatal
Metastasis travel of cancer cells from their original site to a distant tissue
Neoplasm same as tumor; an abnormal swelling or mass
nitrogen mustards class of chemicals that are alkylating agents
palliation form of chemotherapy intended to alleviate symptoms rather than cure the disease
purine building block of DNA and RNA, either adenine or guanine
pyrimidine building block of DNA and RNA, either thymine or cytosine in DNA, and cytosine and uracil in RNA
taxanes type of drug that blocks cell growth by stopping mitosis
topoisomerase enzyme that assists in the repair of DNA damage
tumor abnormal swelling or mass
tumor suppressor genes genes that inhibit the transformation of normal cells into cancer cells
vinca alkaloids chemicals obtained from the periwinkle plant
aerosol suspension of small liquid droplets of drug, usually to cause bronchodilation
allergic rhinitis syndrome of sneezing, itchy throat, watery eyes, and nasal congestion resulting from exposure to antigens; also known as hay fever
alveoli dilated sacs at the end of the bronchial tree where gas exchange occurs
antitussive drug used to suppress cough
asthma chronic inflammatory disease of the airways
bronchi primary passageway of the bronchial tree that contains smooth muscle
bronchioles very small bronchi
bronchoconstriction decrease in diameter of the airway due to contraction of bronchial smooth muscle
bronchodilation increase in diameter of the airway due to relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle
bronchospasm rapid constriction of the airways
chronic bronchitis chronic disease of the lungs characterized by excess mucus production and inflammation
dry powder inhaler (DPI) device used to convert a solid drug to a fine powder for the purpose of inhalation
dry powder inhaler(DPI) device used to convert a solid drug to a fine powder for the purpose of inhalation
dyspnea shortness of breath
emphysema terminal lung disease characterized by dilation of the alveoli
expectorant drug used to increase bronchial secretions
H1-receptor blocker drug that blocks the effects of histamine in smooth muscle in the bronchial tree
metered-dose inhaler (MDIs) device used to deliver a precise amount of drug to the respiratory system
mucolytic drug used to loosen thick mucus
nebulizer device used to convert liquid drugs into a fine mist for the purpose of inhalation
perfusion blood flow through a tissue or organ
rebound congestion a condition of hypersecretion of mucus following use of intranasal sympathomimetics
respiration exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
status asthmaticus acute form of asthma requiring immediate medical attention
ventilation process by which air is moved into and out of the lungs
alimentary canal the hollow tube in the digestive system that starts in the mouth and includes the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine
anorexia loss of appetite
anorexiant drug used to suppress appetite
antacid drug that neutralizes stomach acid
antiemetic drug that prevents vomiting
antiflatulent drug that reduces gas formation in the GI tract
cathartic drug that causes complete evacuation of the bowel
constipation infrequent passage of abnormally hard and dry stools
Crohn's disease chronic inflammatory bowel disease affecting the ileum and sometimes the colon
Defecation evacuation of the colon; bowel movement
Diarrhea abnormal frequency and liquidity of bowel movements
dietary fiber substance neither digested nor absorbed that contributes to the fecal mass
digestion process by which the body breaks down ingested food into small molecules that can be absorbed
emesis vomiting
emetic drug used to induce vomiting
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) the regurgitation of stomach contents into the esophagus
H+, K+-ATPase enzyme responsible for pumping acid onto the mucosal surface of the stomach
H2-receptor blocker drug that inhibits the effects of histamine at its receptors in the GI tract
Helicobacter pylori bacterium associated with a large percentage of peptic ulcer disease
pancreatic insufficiency condition in which the pancreas is not secreting sufficient amounts of digestive enzymes, resulting in malabsorption syndromes
peptic ulcer erosion of the mucosa in the alimentary canal, most commonly in the stomach duodenum
peristalsis involuntary wave-like contraction that occurs in the alimentary canal
proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) drug that inhibits the enzyme H+, K+-ATPase
ulcerative colitis inflammatory bowel disease of the colon
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome disorder of having excess acid secretion in the stomach
enteral nutrition treatment of undernutrition by the oral route or through a feeding tube
hemoglobin substance in a red blood cell that contains iron and transports oxygen and CO2
hypervitaminosis excess intake of vitamins
intrinsic factor chemical secreted by the stomach that is required for absorption of vitamin B12
major mineral inorganic compound needed by the body in amounts of 100 mg or more daily
major mineral (macromineral) inorganic compound needed by the body in amounts of 100 mg or more daily
pernicious (megaloblastic) anemia type of anemia usually caused by lack of secretion of intrinsic factor
provitamin an inactive chemical that is converted to a vitamin in the body
recommended dietary allowance (RDA) amount of vitamin or mineral needed daily to avoid a deficiency in a healthy adult
total parenteral nutrition (TPN) treatment of undernutrition through the parenteral infusion of dextrose, amino acids, emulsified fats, vitamins, and minerals
trace mineral inorganic compound needed by the body in amounts of 20 mg or less daily
undernutrition taking in or absorbing fewer nutrients than required for normal body growth and maintenance
vitamins organic compounds required by the body in small amounts
Addison's disease hyposecretion of glucocorticoids and aldosterone by the adrenal cortex
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) hormone secreted by the pituitary that stimulates the release of glucocorticoids by the adrenal cortex
atrophy shrinkage or wasting away of a tissue
cretinism dwarfism and mental retardation caused by lack of thyroid hormone during infancy
Cushing's syndrome condition caused by excessive corticosteroid secretion by the adrenal glands or by overdosage with corticosteroid medication
diabetes insipidus excessive urination due to lack of secretion of antidiuretic hormone
diabetes mellitus, type 1 disease characterized by lack of secretion of insulin by the pancreas that usually begins in the early teens
diabetes mellitus, type 2 disease characterized by insufficient secretion of insulin by the pancreas or by lack of sensitivity of insulin receptors that usually begins in middle age
dwarfism below normal height caused by a deficiency in thyroid hormone or growth hormone
follicular cells cells in the thyroid gland that secrete thyroid hormone
glucocorticoid type of hormone secreted by the outer portion of the adrenal gland that includes cortisol
Graves' disease syndrome caused by hypersection of thyroid hormone
Hormones chemicals secreted by endocrine glands that act as chemical messengers to affect homeostasis
Hyperglycemia abnormally high level of glucose in the blood
Hypoglycemia abnormally low level of glucose in the blood
Hypothalamus region of the brain that affects emotions and drives and that secretes releasing factors that affect the pituitary gland
Incretin a group of drugs that boost the action of gastrointestinal hormones, which stimulate the pancreas to release insulin after a meal before blood glucose levels can become too elevated
incretin enhancers a group of drugs that boost the action of gastrointestinal hormones, which stimulate the pancreas to release insulin after a meal before blood glucose levels can become too elevated
islets of Langerhans clusters of cells in the pancreas responsible for the secretion of insulin and glucagon; also called the pancreatic islets
ketoacids waste products of fat metabolism that lower the pH of the blood
mineralocorticoid hormone involved in the regulation of fluid and electrolytes by its effects in the kidney
myxedema condition caused by insufficient secretion of thyroid hormone
parafollicular cells cells in the thyroid gland that secrete calcitonin
pituitary gland endocrine gland in the brain responsible for controlling many other endocrine glands
releasing factors hormones secreted by the hypothalamus that affect secretions in the pituitary gland
somatotropin another name for growth hormone
vasopressin another name for antidiuretic hormone
amenorrhea lack of normal menstrual periods
androgens steroid sex hormones that promote the appearance of masculine characteristics
antepartum prior to the onset of labor
benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate gland
breakthrough bleeding bleeding at abnormal times during the menstrual cycle
corpus cavernosum tissue in the penis that fills with blood during an erection
dysfunctional uterine bleeding hemorrhage that occurs at abnormal times or in abnormal quantity during the menstrual cycle
endometrium inner lining of the uterus
estrogen class of steroid sex hormones produced by the ovary
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that regulates sperm or egg production
hypogonadism below normal secretion of the steroid sex hormones
hysterectomy surgical removal of the uterus
impotence inability to obtain or sustain an erection; also called erectile dysfunction
libido interest in sexual activity
lutinizing hormone (LH) hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that triggers ovulation in the female and stimulates sperm production in the male
menopause time when females stop secreting estrogen and menstrual cycles cease
menorrhea prolonged or excessive menstruation
oligomenorrhea infrequent menstruation
ovulation release of an egg by the ovary
oxytocin hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that stimulates uterine contractions and milk ejection
postpartum occurring after childbirth
progesterone hormone responsible for building up the uterine lining in the second half of the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy
prolactin hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that stimulates milk production in the mammary glands
tocolytic drug used to inhibit uterine contractions
virulization appearance of masculine secondary sex characteristics
acute gouty arthritis condition where uric acid crystals quickly accumulate in the joints of the big toes, heels, ankles, wrists, fingers, knees, or elbows, resulting in red, swollen, or inflamed tissue
autoantibodies proteins called rheumatoid factors released by B lymphocytes; these tear down the body's own tissue
bisphosphonates family of drugs that block bone resorption by inhibiting osteoclast activity
bone deposition the opposite of bone resorption; the process of depositing mineral components into bone
bone resorption process of bone demineralization or the breaking down of bone into mineral components
calcifediol intermediate form of vitamin D
calcitonin treatment typically administered to women who cannot take estrogen or bisphosphonate therapy or for clients with Paget's disease
calcitriol substance that is transformed in the kidneys during the second step of the conversion of vitamin D to its active form
cholecalciferol inactive form of vitamin D
disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) agents that reduce destruction of the joints and progression of rheumatoid arthritis
gout metabolic disorder characterized by the accumulation of uric acid in the bloodstream or joint cavities
osteoarthritis (OA) disorder characterized by degeneration of joints such as the fingers, spine, hips, and knees
osteomalacia rickets in children; disease characterized by softening of the bones without alteration of basic bone structure
osteoporosis condition in which bones become brittle and susceptible to fracture
Paget's disease disorder characterized by weak, enlarged, and abnormal bones
rheumatoid arthritis (RA) systemic autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation of multiple joints
selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMS) drugs that directly produce an action similar to estrogen in body tissues; used for the treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women
closed comedones commonly called whiteheads, this type of acne develops just beneath the surface of the skin
dermatitis inflammatory condition of the skin characterized by itching and scaling
eczema also called atopic dermatitis, a skin disorder with unexplained symptoms of inflammation, itching, and scaling
emollients agents used to soothe and soften the skin
erythema redness associated with skin irritation
keratinization development of the stratum corneum or horny layer of epithelial tissue
keratolytic agents drugs used to promote shedding of old skin
open comedones type of acne in which sebum has plugged the oil gland; commonly called blackheads
papules inflammatory bumps without pus that swell, thicken, and become painful
pediculicides medications that kill lice
pruritus itching associated with dry, scaly skin
psoralen drug used along with phototherapy for the treatment of psoriasis and other severe skin disorders
pustules inflammatory bumps with pus
retinoids vitamin A-like compounds used in the treatment of severe acne and psoriasis
retinol chemical name for vitamin A
rosacea skin disorder characterized by clusters of papules
scabicides drugs that kill scabies and mites
scabies skin disorder caused by the female mite burrowing into the skin and laying eggs
seborrhea condition characterized by overactivity of oil glands
closed-angle glaucoma called acute glaucoma, this type of glaucoma is caused by the iris blocking trabecular meshwork, hindering outflow of aqueous fluid
cycloplegia blurred vision
cycloplegic drug drugs that relax or temporarily paralyze ciliary muscles
external otitis commonly called swimmer's ear, this is inflammation of the outer ear
mastoiditis inflammation of the mastoid sinus
miosis constriction of the pupil
miotics drugs that cause pupil constriction
mydriasis dilation of the pupil
mydriatic drugs drugs that cause pupil dilation
open-angle glaucoma also called chronic simple glaucoma, this type of glaucoma is caused by congestion in trabecular meshwork, hindering outflow of aqueous fluid
otitis media inflammation of the middle ear
tonometry technique for measuring eye tension and pressure
Created by: rebecca82