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Chapter 7 Med Term

Cardiovascular system Part 1

Angi/o, vas/o, vascul/o vessel
Aort/o aorta
Arteri/o artery
Ather/o fatty (lipid) paste
Atri/o atrium
Cardi/o heart
Coron/o circle or crown
My/o muscle
Pector/o chest
Steth/o chest
Sphygm/o pulse
Thromb/o clot
Ven/o vein
Phleb/o vein
Varic/o swollen, twisted vein
Ventricul/o ventricle(belly or pouch)
Cardiovascular system heart and blood vessels that transport blood throughout the body
Heart muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body
Name the 4 chambers of the heart Right Atrium, Left Atrium(Upper chambers) Right ventricle, Left ventricle(Lower chambers)
Septum partition that divides the heart into right and left portions
Interatrial septum What the Atria (atriums) are separated by
Interventricular septum What the ventricles are separated by
Name the 3 layers of the heart endocardium,myocardium,epicardium
Endocardium membrane lining the interior cavities of heart
Myocardium thick muscular layer of heart
Epicardium outer membrane of heart
Pericardium loose outer membrane of the heart that surrounds,protects and encloses
Blood transports essential elements within the body
Blood is circulated throught the body in arteries, arterioles,capillaries,venules and veins
Deoxygenated blood returning from circulation in the body enters heart through superior vena cava, inferior vena cava into right atrium
Right atrial contraction pushes blood through tricuspid valve into right ventricle
Right ventricle contraction pushes blood through pulmonary semilunar valve into pulmonary artery
Pulmonary artery carries blood through two branches, to lungs and on through pulmonary circulation.
Pulmonary circulation network of arteries, capillaries, air sacs and veins in lungs-gives off carbon dioxide
Pulmonary veins oxygenated blood returns to heart into left atrium
Left atrial contraction pushes blood through mitral(bicuspid valve) into left ventricle
Left ventricle contraction pushes blood through aortic valve through the aorta blood then carried to all body through systemic circulation.
Systemic circulation blood that is carried by arteries, arterioles,capillaries and veins to provide transport for oxygen and nutrients.
Right side of the heart handles deoxygenated blood (NO O2)
Left side of the heart handles oxygenated blood (O2)
1st organ to receive O2 blood via coronary circulation heart
Right and Left coronary arteries branch from the aorta, divide to distribute blood evenly throughout entire heart
Visceral pertains to organs
Arteries, arterioles, capillaries carry oxygenated blood(O2)
Venules, veins carry deoxygenated blood (Carbon Dioxide)
Atrium upper right and left chambers of the heart
Endocardium membrane lining the cavities of the heart
Epicardium membrane forming the outer layer of the heart
Interatrial septum partition between right and left atrium
Interventricular septum partition between right and left ventricle
Myocardium heart muscle
Pericardium protective sac around heart has two layers with fluid between
Parietal pericardium outer layer(parietal=pertaining to wall)
Pericardial cavity fluid filled cavity between pericardial layers
Visceral pericardium layer closest to the heart(visceral=pertaining to organ)
Ventricle lower right and left chambers of the heart
Heart valves structures within the heart that open and close with the heartbeat to regulate the one way flow of blood.
Aortic valve heart valve between left ventricle and aorta
Mitral or bicuspid valve heart valve between the left atrium and left ventricle (cuspis=point)
Mitral stems from Latin mitre referring to cap or headband
Pulmonary semilunar valve heart valve opening from right ventricle to pulmonary artery(luna=Moon)
Tricuspid valve valve between the right atrium and right ventricle
Valves of the veins valves located at intervals within lining of veins, especially legs, which constrict muscle action to move blood returning to the heart
Arteries vessels that carry blood FROM the heart to the arterioles
Aorta large artery that is the main trunk of the arterial system branching from the left ventricle
Arterioles (CO2) CO2 small vessels that receive blood from the arteries
Capillaries (CO2) CO2 tiny vessels that join aterioles and venules
Venules (NO CO2) NO CO2 small vessels that gather blood from the capillaries into the veins
Veins (NO CO2) NO CO2 vessels that carry blood to the heart from the venules
Systemic circulation circulation of blood throughout the body through arteries, arterioles, capillaries and veins to deliver oxygen and nutrients to body tissues
Coronary circulation circulation of blood through the coronary blood vessels to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle tissue
Pulmonary circulation circulation of blood ffrom pulmonary artery through vesels in lungs and back to heart via pulmonary vein providing for the exchange of gases
Blood Pressure force exerted by circulating blood by walls of arteries, veins and heart chambers (pressure determined by blood, space within arterial walls and force of heart contractions.Measured in period of contraction(systole)and period of relaxtion(diastole)of hear
Diastole to expand,period in the cardiac cycle when blood enters the relaxed ventricles from the atria
Sytole to contract, period in the cardiac cycle when the heart is in contraction and blood is ejected through the aorta and pulmonary artery
Normotension normal blood pressure
Hypotension low blood pressure 70/40
Hypertension high blood pressure 140/90
Capillary Latin term meaning a hair of the head(capillus)caput=head pilus=hair Leonardo DaVinci first mentioned the capillary(a very fine tube)
Cardiac conduction makes movement of blood through heart possible.
Cardiac cycle repeated action of the heart during which an electrical impulseis conducted from the sinoatrial node to t he atrioventricular node to the bundle of His, to left and right bundle branches to perjinke fibers causing contraction of heart and blood circulatio
Sinoatrial node SA node the pacemaker of the heart, specialized neurological tissue embedded in wall of right atrium, initiates electrical conduction of heartbeat causing atria to contract and firing conduction impulses to AV node.
Atrioventricular node AV node neurological tissue in center of heart that receives and amplifies the conduction of impulses from SA node to bundle of His.
Bundle of His neurological fibers, extending from AV node to right and left bundle branches that fire impulses from AV node to Purkinje fibers.
Purkinje fibers(network) fibers in the ventricles that transmit impulses to right and left ventricles, causing them to contract
Polarization resting, resting state of a myocardial cell
Depolarization change of myocardial cell from polarization(resting) to state of contraction(de=not polarization=resting)
Repolarization recharging of myocardial cell from a contracted stateback to resting state (re=again polarization=resting)
Normal sinus rhythm NSR regular rhythm of the heart cycle stimulated by SA node. Average rate of 60-100 beats a minute
Hypoxia abnormally low oxygen availability to the body or an individual tissue or organ.
Hypoxemia abnormal deficiency in the concentration of oxygen in arterial blood
Arteriosclerosis thickening, loss of elasticity, and calcification(hardening) of the arterial walls
Atherosclerosis buildup of fatty substances within walls of arteries
Atheromatous plaque swollen area within artery lining caused by fat(lipid) buildup
Thrombus stationary blood clot
Embolus a clot (air, fat, foreign object) carried in bloodstream that obstructs when it lodges. Embolus (a stopper)
Stenosis narrowing of a part
Constriction compression of a part
Occlusion plugging, obstruction or closing off
Ischemia to hold back blood, decreased blood flow to a tissue caused by occlusion or constriction of blood vessel.
Perfusion deficit lack of flow through blood vessel caused by narrowing, occlusion,etc.
Infarct to stuff, localized area of necrosis caused by ischemia as a result of blood vessel occlusion
Angina pectoris chest pain caused by temporary loss of oxgenated blood to heart muscle.Caused by narrowing of coronary arteries(angina=to choke)
Aneurysm widening, bulging of heart wall, the aorta, or artery caused by congenital defect or acquired weakness.
Saccular saclike bulge on one side
Fusiform spindle shaped bulge
Dissecting split or tear of vessel wall
Claudication to limp, pain in a limb especially calf, while walking that subsides after rest caused by inadequate blood supply.
Diaphoresis profuse sweating
Heart murmur abnormal sound from heart produced by defects in the chambers or valves
Palpitation subjective experience of pounding, skipping, or racing heartbeats
Vegetation to grow, an abnormal growth of tissue around a valve, generally result of infection like bacterial endocarditis.
Arrythmia any of several kinds of irregularity or loss of rhythm of the heartbeat
Dysrhythmia any of several kinds of irregularity or loss of rhythm of the heartbeat
Bradycardia slow heart rate
Fibrillation chaotic, irregular contractions of heart, as in atrial or ventricular fibrillation
Flutter extremely rapid but regular contractions of heart as in atrial or ventricular flutter typically 250-350 beats a minute
Heart block an interference with the normal electrical conduction of the heart defined by location of block.
Premature ventricular contractionPVC ventricular contraction preceding the normal impulseinitiated by SA node(pacemaker)
Tachycardia fast heart rate >100 beats a minute
Arterisclerotic heart disease (ASHD) degenerative condition of arteries charachterized by thickening of inner lining, loss of elasticity and susceptibility to rupture seen most often in aged or smokers.
Bacterial endocarditis bacterial inflammation that affects the endocardium or heart valves
Cardiac tamponade compression of heart produced by accumulation of fluid in the percardial sac as results from pericarditis or trauma causing rupture of a blood vessel within the heart (tampon=a plug)
Cardiomyopathy general term for disease of heart muscle
Congenital anomaly of the heart malformations of the heart present at birth (anomaly=irregularity)
Atrial septal defectASD opening in septum seperating the atria
Coarctation of the aorta narrowing of descending portion of aorta resulting in limited blood flow to lower part of body.
Patent ductus arteriosus abnormal opening between pulmonary artery and aorta caused by failure of fetal ductus arteriosus to close after birth (patent=open)
Tetralogy of Fallot (french) anomaly with 4 defects, pulmonary stenosis, ventricular septal defect, malposition of aorta, right ventricular hypertrophy causes blood to bypass pulmonary circulation so that deoxygenated blood goes into systemic circulation resulting in cyanosi
Ventricular septal defect VSD an opening in the septum seperating the ventricles.
Congestive heart failure CHF failure of left ventricle to pump adequate blood to meet the demands of body resulting in bottleneck of congestion in lungs that may extend to veins causing edema in lower body.( Left ventricle failure)(most common in elderly)
Cor pulmonale (right ventricular failure) condition of enlargement of the right ventricle as a result of chronic disease within lungs that causes congestion within pumonary circulation and resistance of blood flow to lungs(cor=heart)
coronary artery disease CAD condition affecting arteries of heart that reduces blood flow and delivery of oxygen and nutrients to myocardium
mitral valve prolapse MVP protrusion of one or both cusps of the mitral valve back into left atrium during ventricular contraction, resulting in incomplete closure and backflow of blood.
myocardial infarction MI heart attack, death if myocardial tissue
myocarditis inflammation of the myocardium caused by viral or bacterial infection
pericarditis inflammation of the pericardium
phlebitis inflammation of a vein
rheumatic heart disease damage to heart muscle and heart valves by rheumatic fever (streptococcal infection)
thrombophlebitis inflammation of a vein associated with a clot formation
varicose veins abnormally swollen, twisted veins with defective valves, most often seen in legs
deep vein thrombosis DVT formation of a clot in a deep vein of the body, occuring most often in the femoral and illiac veins
auscultation physical examination method of listening to sounds within the body with aid of a stethoscope
bruit noise, an abnormal heart sound caused by turbulence within
gallop abnormal heart sound that mimics the gait of a horse related to abnormal ventricular contraction
electrocardiogram ECG or EKG electrical picture of heart represented by positve and negative deflections on a graph labeled with letters PQRS and T, corresponding with events of teh cardiac cycle
stress electrocardiogram an ECG of heart recorded during induction of controlled physical exercise
Holter ambulatory monitor portable ECG worn by patient that monitors electrical activity of heart over 24 hours.
intracardiac electrophsiological study EPS invasive procedure involving catheter guided electrodes within heart to evaluate and map electrical conduction of cardiac arrhythmias cathater ablation may be performed at the same time