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Lesson 5-

Skeletal and Muscular System

Orthopedics branch of medicine involved in the prevention and correction of deformities or diseases of the muscular and skeletal
Orthopedist physician specializing in disorders of the bones and associated structures
Skeleton composed of bone and cartilage: framework of the body
Muscles soft tissue units that move an organ or part of the body by contracting and relaxing
Musculoskeletal Muscular and Skeletal system as referred to as one
Bones in adult skeletal system 206
Cranium (crani/o) skull
Clavicle (clavicul/o) collarbone
Costa (cost/o) rib
Scapula (scapula/o) shoulder blade
Sternum (stern/o) breastbone
Vertebra (vertebr/o, spondyl/o) bones of the spinal column
Ilium (ili/o) hip bones
Ischium (ischi/o) hip bones
Pubis (pub/o) hip bones
Humerus (humer/o) upper arm bone
Radius (radi/o) bone of the forearm
Ulna (uln/o) bone of the forearm
Carpals (carp/o) wrist bones
Metacarpals (metacarp/o) bones of the hands
Phalanges (phalang/o) bones of the fingers
Femur (femor/o) thigh bone
Patella (patell/o) kneecap
Fibula (fibul/o) bone of the lower leg
Tibia (tibi/o) bone of the lower leg
Tarsals (tars/o) ankle bones
Metatarsals (metatars/o) bones of the feet
Phalanges (phalang/o) bones of the toes
De- down, from, or reversing
Calc/i- calcium
Cervic/o- neck or uterine cervix
Coccyg/o- Coccyx
Lumb/o- lumbar
Myel/o- bone marrow or spinal cord
Oste/o- bone
Pelv/i- pelvis
Rach/i- spine
Rachi/o- spine
Sacr/o- sacrum
Spondyl/o- pertaining to the vertebra or the spinal column
Thorac/o- thorax
Paraplegia is paralysis of the lower portion of the body and both legs
Quadriplegia is paralysis of the arms and legs. i.e. from the neck down
Herniated disk protruding disk than can press on the spinal cord or on a spinal nerve, causing pain
Laminectomy excision of the posterior arch of a vertebra
Spina Bifida is a congenital abnormality characterized by defective closure of the bones of the spine
Scoliosis is lateral curvature of the spine
Kyphosis exaggerated curvature of the spine from front to back gives rise to a condition commonly known as humpback or hunchback
Rheumatoid Spondylitis causes inflammation of cartilage between the vertebrae
Ankylosed Spine when the whole spine becomes stiffened and inflexible
Osteoarthritis loss of spinal flexibility a chronic disease involving the bones and joints
Spinal Anethesia loss of feeling produced by an anesthetic injected into the spinal canal
Spinal puncture is a puncture of the spinal cavity with a needle (aspirtae spinal fluid, anesthesia, radiograpic agents)
Spinal cord is part of the central nervous system
Spinal fluid is the clear colorless liquid that circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord
cerebrospinal fluid is the clear colorless liquid that circulates through out the brain and spinal cord
Articualtion place of union between two or more bones
Synovial Joints joint that have cavities between articulating bones
Synovial fluid the lubricating fluid contained with synovial joints
Bursae are sacs of fluid located in the areas of friction especially in joints
Bursitis inflammation of a bursa
Arthritis infalmmation of a joint
Rheumatoid arthritis chronic disease characterized by inflammatory chages in joints and related structures
Spondylarthritis inflammation of a vertebrae
Polyarthritis inflammation of more thatn one joint
Arthralgia painful joint
arthrodynia painful joint
Arthrocentesis needle puncture of a joint space
Arthroscopy direct visualization of the interior of a joint
Arthroscope a fiberoptic instrument to view interior of a joint
Arthrotomy incision of a joint
Arthropathy disease of a joint
Ankylosis abnormal condition in which the joint is immobile and stiff
Ligaments are strong bands of fibrous connective tissue that connect bones or cartilage and serve to support and strengthen joints
Fascia is the fibrous membrane that covers, supports, and seperates muscles
Tendons bands of strong fibrous tissue that attach the muscles to the bones
Tendoplasty surgical repair of a tendon
Tendonitis inflammation of a tendon
Ankyl/o- stiff
Arthr/o- articulation, joint
Burs/o- bursa
Chondr/o- cartilage
Muscul/o- muscle
My/o- muscle
Ten/o- tendon
Tend/o- tendon
Collagen disease are disorders of the connective tissue
Collagen is a fibrous protein of connective tissue
Lupus erythematosus are collagen disease
Scleroderma collagen diseases
Dislocation is a displacement of a bone from a joint
Fracture the breakin of a bone
Simple fracture the bone is broken but does not punture the skin surface
Compound fracture the end of the broken bone is visible through an opening in the skin
Reduction the correction of a fracture whereby the broken ends are pulled into alignment
Closed reduction if a fractured bone is restored to its normal position by manipulation without surgery
Open reduciton fractured bone must be exposed by surgery
Internal fixation in which a rod or plate is inserted to stabilize the bones alignment
Gout painful metabolic disease that is a form of acute arthritis caused by hyperuricemia
Hernia protrusion of an organ or part of an organ through the wall of the cavity that normally contains it
Leukemias are chronic or acute diseases of the blood forming tissues characterized by unrestrained growth of leukocytes and their precursors
Multiple myeloma is a disease characterized by te presence of many tumor masses in the bone and bone marrow
Osteitis deformans is a skeletal disease of the elderly characterized by chronic bone inflammation
Sacrcomas cancers that arise from connetive tissue such as muscle or bone
Chondrosarcoma compose of masses cartilage
Fibrosarcoma Malignant tumor containing much frbrous tissue
Sprain injury to a joint that causes pain and disabiltiy
Strain excessive use of a part of the body to the extent that it is injured; trauma to a muscle caused by violent contraction or excessive forcible stretch
Created by: SHOSELYN