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Anthropology Exam 2.

TermDefinition
V. Gordon Child Major technology developments as responsible for cultural growth and believed that environmental factors stimulated adaptations as well as impeded cultures from growing.
Leslie White-neoevolution a model of cultural evolution based on types of technology and food-procurement strategies, and the sociocultural adaptations that resulted from them.
Julian Steward an evolutionary model of culture emphasizing different development patterns for societies in different habitats.
Marshall D. Sahlins & Elman R. Service general cultural evolution is the successive emergence of new levels of all-round development.
Oldowan Tools 2 million years ago, used for cutting.
Acheulean hand axes about 1 million years ago, increased technology.
Ecological Model model that views a culture as part of a larger global ecological system with each aspect of the system interacting with all the other parts.
Optimal Foraging Model a model that aims at understanding how foragers optimize the gathering of food.
Evolutionary-Ecological Model paradigm of human culture that combines both the neoevolutionary and ecological perspectives.
Technology the knowledge, tools, and skills used by humans to manipulate their environment.
Tools are created by: 1) knowledge of available raw materials. 2) knowledge and skills to obtain the raw materials. 3) knowledge and skills to manipulate the raw materials to make the desired object.
Traditions Cultural choices consistently made by a society and practiced generation to generation.
Foraging food-procurement strategy that involves collecting wild plant and animal foods. 80% of total diet.
Carrying Capacity the maximum a population that a habitat can sustain or carry. -Availability of food, water and shelter, existence of predators and disease.
Bands type of society common in foraging groups and marked by egalitarian social structure and lack of specialization.
Family Band nuclear family units that move independently within an area. Joins other when resources are plentiful; travels alone at other times.
Patrilocal Band related males and their wives and children who stay together and forage as a group. -Few material possessions. Sharing, giving, receiving. Everyone is equal.
Reciprocity enculturated pattern in which people give and receive items of value in predictable ways.
Generalized reciprocity when everyone gives of time, food, and artifacts and no one keeps track of what is given received.
Balanced Reciprocity involves exchange of favors or items while keeping mental record in the expectation that something of equal value will be returned within reasonable period of time. -Distant Relatives
Negative Reciprocity occurs when one tried to get more than give, often through haggling or theft. -unrelated
Egalitarian members have equal access to status, power, and wealth within the same category such as age or gender.
Division of Labor manner of dividing work based on criteria such as age or gender.
Horticulture a food-procurement strategy based on crop production with out soil preperation, fertilizers, irrigation, or use of draft animals.
AMS accelerator mass spectrometry. -Most horticulture developed in areas where there is sufficient rainfall. Horticulturalist are sedentary. Until the soil is exhausted.
Slash-and-Burn removal of plant material by cutting and burning prepatory to planting. -Larger populations. Kinship systems. Poorer nutrition-lack of diversity. Higher energy budgets. generlists-reciprocity. division of laber-gender roles. Ownership of property.
Pastorilism food-procurement strategy based on herding. -production based of sophisticated technology. Larger pop. prop ownership. improved nutrition. high energy, increased carrying capacity. generalized and balanced recip.
Transhumance variety of patoralism in which herds are moved seasonally.
Agriculture subsistence strategy based on intensive, continuous use of land for the production of plant foods. Cultivation of soils, use of fertilizer, and irrigation. Sedentary
Chiefdom type of society with an office of chief, most commonly hereditary, social ranking, and redistributive economy.
Stratified Society society with uneven access to resources within groups of the same gender and status. -Property ownership. Poor nutrition. low energy. doesn't recipricate.
Redistribution system of exchange in which wealth is relocated; found in chiefdoms and state societies.
Market Exchange trading of goods and services through the use of currency. -supply and demand.
Barter exchange of products that does not involve currency.
Commodity money currency in the form of valued objects such as shells or gold.
Fiat money paper currency back by a nation-state's clain of its value.
Symbols are important because: 1) linguistic confusion can result when terms are translated from native languages to English. 2) it's easier to trace and understand complex relationships with use of visual images.
Exogamy cultural rule that dictates that one must marry outside of a designated group.
Nuclear family married couple and their children. -prevents incest. extend territory. political alliances. stimulate trade. reduce conflicts within families.
Endogamy cultural rule that dictates that one must marry within a designated group. -same religion or racial/ethnic group. maintain cultural identity.
Levirate marriage custom in which a widow marries her deceased husband's brother. also called brother-in-law marriage.
Sororate custom in which a widower marries a sister of his deceased wife.
marriage event that marks important change in status and role. -exclusive sexual relationship. economic interdependence. legitimizes offspring.
status persons position in society
role culturally assigned behaviors and expectations for a person social position
Monogamy form of marriage in which one woman is married to one man.
Polygamy multiple-spouse marriage
Polygyny marriage of one man to two or more women.
Polyandry marriage of one woman to two or more men.
Group Marriage group on individuals of both sexes married to each other.
Sister Exchange Marriage of cross-cousins. Men exchange their sisters as marriage partners.
Cross-Cousin Ego's mother's brother's child and father's brother's sister's child.
Parallel-Cousin Ego's mother's sister's child and father's brother's child.
3 ways marriage partners is chosen: 1) free choice of spouse. 2) free choice with parental approval. 3) arranged marriage.
Bride Wealth gifts from the groom's family to bride's family.
Half-marriage man pays partial bride wealth and lives with the bride's family and couple's children belong to wife and her family.
Family of Orientation person's childhood family, where enculturation takes place.
Consanguineal relatives kin related by blood.
Family of Procreation kin group consisting of an individual and the individual's spouse and children.
Affinal Kin kin related by marriage
Kinship Systems complexity of a culture's rules governing the relationships between affinal and consanguineal kin.
Extended Family two or more nuclear families that are related be blood and who reside in the same household.
household common residence based economic unit.
Neolocal Residence a post-marriage residence rule that requires the bride and groom to set up an independent household away from both sets of parents.
Patrilocal residence newly married couple go live with groom's father.
Virilocal residence living with husband's group.
Matrilocal residence newly married couple live with bride's mother. -warfare
Matrifocal residence woman and her children residing with out co-residence of a husband.
Avunculocal residence bride and groom reside with or near groom's mother's brother or uncle.
Bilocal or ambilocal residence live with either side of parents.
matri-patrilocal residence groom moves to live with bride's family until bride wealth payments are complete.
Created by: 1515720194