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WHII Midterm Review

Terms, People, and Key Concepts of the first nine weeks

Term/QuestionDefinition/Answer
Holy Book of for Christians Bible
Holy Book of Judaism Torah
Holy Book of Islam Koran
Term meaning belief in one god Monotheism
First hand sources, testimonies, or materials Primary Source
Goods exchanged along the Trans-Saharan Route Gold and Salt
Shah Jahan ruled this empire, located in Northern India. It is the empire responsible for the Taj Mahal Mughal
3 beliefs or characteristics of Hinduism The Caste System Reincarnation Karma
Coffee and ceramics were traded by this empire Ottoman
The Ottomans were a strong trading empire because they had access to and control of the eastern portion of this body of water Mediterranean Sea
In 1500, the most widespread religion in Europe Christianity
Italian city-states were able to dominate trade because Italy is centrally located on the Mediterranean
Meaning of the Renaissance Rebirth of classical Greek and Roman culture
He painted both the Mona Lisa and the Last Supper Leonardo Da Vinci
Painter who painted the Sistine Chapel Michelangelo
Group formed during the Counter Reformation that spread the Catholic religion through education Jesuits
Founder of the Jesuits Ignatius Loyola
Humanism Focus on the achievements and potential of humans
Famous humanist writer of the Renaissance period, he wrote "The Praise of Folly" Erasmus
Man who started the Protestant Reformation Martin Luther
Luther's list of grievances 95 Theses
Martin Luther most criticized --- the sale of indulgences
Pardons for sins indulgences
Man who went around selling indulgences Johann Tetzel
Term referring to the common or native language of an area vernacular
Why would Martin Luther support the translation of the Bible into the vernacular? The common person could read the Bible for himself.
He invented the printing press Johann Gutenberg
Impact of the printing press Increase literacy, education, spread of knowledge, and new ideas
Renaissance playwright who wrote about human fallibilty and vice, love, envy, and other human emotions William Shakespeare
Columbian Exchange Exchange of goods and products between the Old and New Worlds
He discovered a "whole new world" while looking for a shorter route to India Christopher Columbus
Explorer who found what Columbus was looking for-a shorter route to India. (he found "da" route Columbus was looking for) Vasco da Gama
English explorer who claimed Canada for England John Cabot
Columbus sailed for this country Spain
Explorer/conquistador who sailed for Spain and conquered the Aztecs Cortez
Mercantilism Theory that states there is a fixed amount of wealth in the world and a country should do all it can to gain power and wealth. A country should also export more goods than it imports.
Part of triangular trade that actually refers to the transporting of Africans to the New World Middle Passage
Encomienda system provided Spain with this a cheap labor source
Three purposes of missions Churches/Spread Christianity Forts Schools
One last result of Spain's domincance in colonial Latin America is that Spanish is the principal language spoken in most of Latin America.
Scientist who discovered the laws of gravity Sir Isaac Newton
He used the telescope to prove the heliocentric theory Galileo
Astronomer who proposed the theory of planetary motion (he "kept" the planets in motion") Johannes Kepler
To protect the Japanese people from Western influences, the Tokugawa shogunate practiced a form of isolationism or closed-door policy
Two characteristics of absolute monarchs Belief in divine right and the centralization of power
Enlightenment writers focused on the relationship people and the government
Enlightenment thinker who promoted the idea of separation of power. Montesquieu
He influenced the writing of the Declaration of Independence John Locke
Enligthenment thinker who believed everyone should have a voice and that the goals and agendas of church and state should be separate Voltaire
Like scientitics of the scientific revolution, Enlightenment thinkers relied on the use of this --- reason
He discovered the circulation of blood William Harvey
Six causes of revolution Religious Intolerance, Economic Distress, Social injustice, Unpopular method of rule, Enlightment ideas, and Nationalism
Identify two monarchs who were executed (hint: one is from England and one from France) Charles I of England and Louis XVI of France
Bloodless transfer of power that occured when William and Mary became joint-monarchs of England Glorious Revolution
In order to become rule England, William and Mary had to accept this---making them constitutional monarchs English Bill of Rights
Causes of the French Revolution Debt, Third Estate had little say in the government, increased taxes
The idea that government is a contract between people and the rulers is associated with this Enlightened thinker Rousseau
Events of the French Revolution Storming of the Bastille Reign of Terror
Revolution that influenced independence movements in other parts of the world American Revolution
U.S. policy issued as a result of conflict over Latin America, this document stated the U.S. would view as a threat to its own security any attempt by European countries to regain colonies in Latin America Monroe Doctrine
He was the George Washington of Latin America, leading independence movements in several colonies Simon Bolivar
Priest who lead the independence movement in Mexico Miguel Hidalgo
Pride in one's nation; believing that people of similar culture, customs, beliefs, and languages should be united Nationalism
The Congress of Vienna wanted to take Europe BACK to how it was before 1789. What happened in 1789? French Revolution started
The "C" in BACK stands for Congress of Vienna. What do the other three letters stand for? B-Balance of Power A-A new map of Europe K-Kings restored to power
Leader at the Congress of Vienna Prince Metternich
Event that led to the unification of Germany Franco-Prussian War
Leader of the Germany unification movement Otto Von Bismarck
He led the movement to unite Northern Italy Count Cavour
He united Northern and Southern Italy Giuseppe Garibaldi
Author of Don Quixote Cervantes
Created by: jknoxville