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devo test 2

mesoderm and endoderm

region of mesoderm that forms the notochord chordamesoderm
region of mesoderm that forms somites paraxial mesoderm
4 regions of mesoderm 1) chordamesoderm 2) paraxial mesoderm 3) intermediate mesoderm 4) lateral plate mesoderm
somatopleure is composed of these two germ layers somatic mesoderm and ectoderm
splanchnopleure is comprised of these two germ layers splanchnic mesoderm and endoderm
schizocoelous method a method of forming a coelom where the body cavity originates as a split within a bud of mesodermal tissue at the time of gastrulation
lateral body folding mesoderm, ectoderm and endoderm fold under the embryo and the lateral plate mesoderm develops a cavity so that it forms splanchnic and somatic mesoderm layers. The lateral edges of ectoderm meet at the anterior midline
changes in paraxial mesoderm (in three stages) 1) somites 2) epithelial somites 3) development of somite regions
3 types of somite regions 1) dermatome 2) sclerotome (mesenchymal) 3) myotome
3 types of muscle cells 1) smooth 2) cardiac 3) skeletal
differentiation of skeletal muscle cells skeletal muscles arise from the paraxial mesoderm layer
differentiation of cardiac musculature mesoblast cells settle together to form the cardiogenic and the myocardial plates
development of skeletal tissues in 3 steps 1) mesenchyme 2) osteoblasts 3) bony tissue
2 methods of bone formation 1) intramembranous 2) endochondral
intramembranous method of bone formation a field of mesenchyme and mesenchymal tissue gives rise to bone
endochondral bone formation bone forms first as cartilage and then bone replaces that cartilage
describe the relationship between vertebrae, muscles and spinal nerves ______ im not actually gonna type all that information
two germ layers found in limb buds 1) ectoderm 2) mesoderm
limb skeleton is mostly mesenchyme that undergoes this type of bone formation endochondral
Apical Ectodermal Ridge (AER) seems to be important to the formation of proximal and distal structures and their positioning. Sends signals to mesenchyme telling it to grow outwards forming proximal structures first and distal structures second
blood islands structures from a developing embryo that lead to many different parts of the circulatory system. found in the dorsal aorta as well as other areas
hemopoeisis the process of replacing erythrocytes and other blood cells from a pluripotential hemapoietic stem cell
vasculogenesis the development of blood vessels in an embryo. in this process, angioblasts migrate and differentiate based on local cues such as growth factors and extracellular matrices
heart formation originally there are two heart tubes that fuse to form one heart tube with five chambers
5 chambers of an embryonic heart 1) truncus arteriosus 2) bulbus cordis 3) ventricle 4) atrium 5) sinus venosis
Which two chambers of the heart make up the conus? 1) truncus arteriosus 2) bulbus cordis
atria and ventricles and separated by the endocardial cushion and the semilunar valves
left and right ventricles are separated by interventricular septum
left and right atria are separated by septum primum, septum secundum and foramen ovale
fate of sinus venosus gets incorporated into the wall of the right atrium to form a smooth part called sinus venarum and the left portion of the sinus venosus becomes the right atrium itself
fate of the truncus anteriosus and the bulbus cordis form the aorticaopulmonary septum which separates the aorta and pulmonary arteries
fate of aortic arches 1,2,& 5 in mammals disappear
fate of aortic arch 3 in mammals becomes the common carotid artery
fate of aortic arch 4 in mammals becomes both part of the aorta and the right subclavian
fate of aortic arch 6 in mammals becomes both the pulmonary arteries and the ductus anteriosus
4 changes in circulation at birth 1) decrease in blood flow from placenta 2) lungs start to function 3) adult nutrition (intestine - liver) 4) closure of foramen oval, umbilical vessels and ductus arteriosus
intermediate mesoderm a layer of mesoderm that lies between the paraxial mesoderm and the lateral plate
nephrogenic cord a portion of the urogenital ridge that forms the kidneys and the ureter
3 orders of kidneys 1) pronephric 2) mesonephric 3) metanephric
nephrostome oriented towards the coelem. part of the metanephric kidney. It is lined on the inside with cilia which push water and waste towards into the kidney
bowman's capsule a cup-like sac at the beginning of the tubular component of a nephron and is the first step in blood filtration to form urine. fluids from the blood are collected here and passed further along the nephron to form urine
ureteric bud/metanephric diverticulum a protrusion from the mesonephric duct which later develops into a conduit for urine drainage from the kidneys
metanephric mesoderm one of the two structures that give rise to the kidney. develops mostly into nephrons but can form some of the collecting duct system also
allantois collects embryo water waste and allows for some embryo gas exchange
cloaca a single opening for intestinal and urinary waste as well as reproductive tract
urorectal septum divides the cloaca into two separate dorsal and ventral parts on the inside. it grows downward separating the allantois from the cloacal opening of the intestine.
indifferent stage of reproductive system development is characterized by this structure gonadal ridge
primordial germ cells germ cells that still have to reach the gonads. they divide on their way to the gonads through the gut
primary sex cords structures that develop from the gonadal ridge. in males they form the testes cords and in females they form the cortical cords
male reproductive development medulla hollow out and become seminiferous tubules and the cortex regresses to mesothelium
female reproductive development medulla largely degenerates. cortex thickens as secondary sex cords
wolffian/mesonephric duct connects the cloaca to the primitive kidney and serves as the anlage for the male reproductive organs and form the epididymus and the vas deferens
paramesonephric duct/mullerian duct run down lateral sides of the urogenital ridge develop into the fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix and upper 2/3's of the vagina
anti mullerian duct factor prohibits the formation of mullerian ducts in the male embryo
urogenital folds folds derived from the cloacal folds
genital tubercle develops into either a clitoris or a penis
labioscrotal swelling paired structures that signal the final stage of the caudal end of external genitals
branchial groove 1 becomes external auditory meatus and tympanic membrane
branchial arch 1 becomes maxillary and mandibular process
branchial arch mesoderm 1 becomes mechel's cartilage (malleus, incus)
branchial arch mesoderm 2 becomes stapes, part of hyoid
branchial arch mesoderm 3 becomes part of hyoid
branchial arch mesoderms 4 and 6 become cartilage of larynx
pharygeal pouch 1 becomes tympanic cavity, eustachian tube
pharyngeal pouch 2 becomes palatine tonsil
pharyngeal pouch 3 becomes thymus, inferior parathyroids
pharyngeal pouch 4 becomes ultimobranchial body, superior parathyroids
palate develops from maxillary process and lateral palatine process
laryngotracheal groove precursor for larynx and trachea
lung buds precursor for lungs
lung development 1) branching to form branchial tree 2) development of alveoli
Development of alveoli 1) terminal sacs - develop at the end of bronchioles 2) production of surfactant - lipoprotein
4 periods of lung development 1) pseudoglandular 2) canalicular 3) terminal sac 4) alveolar
pseudoglandular up to 4 months, developing lung resembles an endocrine gland
canalicular 4-6 months, lung tissue becomes highly vascularized
terminal saccular 6months - birth, surfactant is produced
alveolar late fetal - 8 years, terminal saccules and alveolar ducts increase in number
Created by: ESPOLADE



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