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ASCPPBT Review Terms

Review for ASCP PBT

TermDefinition
Abdominal Cavity: Body space between the diaphragm and the pelvis, which houses abdominal organs such as the stomach, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, spleen, and kidneys.
Abducted: Away from the body; the position of the patient;s arm for Arterial Blood Gas Collection
ABSs Arterial Blood Gases
ABO Blood group system: Four blood types: A, B, AB, and O. Based on the presence or absence of two antiges identifies as A & B
Accession: The process of recording in order received.
Acid Citrate Dextrose (ACD) An anticoagulant solution available in two formulation, A & B, for immunohematology test such as DNA testing & human leukocyte antigen (HLA) phenotyping, which is used in paternity evaluation and to determine transplant compatibility
Acidosis: A dangerous condition in which the pH of the blood is abnormally low, Acidic
ACT: Activated Clotting Time
Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT or PTT): Test used to evaluate the function of the intrinsic coagulation pathway and monitor Heparin therapy.
Additive: A substance (other than the tube stopper or coating) such as an anticoagulant, antiglycolytic agent, separator gel, preservative, or clot activator placed in a tube or collection container. An additive can be a liquid, powder or spray-dried coating
Adipose: Denoting Fat
Aerobic: With air
Aerosol: Fine mist of the specimen.
AFP Alpha-fetoprotein
Agglutinate: To clump together; as in the antigen-antibody reaction between red blood cells of two different blood types.
Agranulocytes: White blood cells (WBCs) that lack granuls or have extremely fine granules that are not easy to see.
AHCCCs: Arizona Healthcare Cost Containment Stystem
Airborne Precautions: Precautions used in addition to standard precautions for patients known or suspected of being infected with microorganisms transmitted by airborne droplet nuclei
Airborne Transmission: Transmission of disease by dispersal of evaporated droplet nuclei containing an infectious agent.
Aliquot: A portion of specimen used for testing.
Alkalosis: A dangerous condition in which the pH of the blood is abnormally high (alkaline).
Allen Test: A simple noninvasive test to assess collateral circulation before collecting a blood specimen form the radial artery.
Alph-fetoprotein (AFP): An antigen normally present in the human fetus that is also found in amniotic fluid and maternal serum. It is also present in certain pathological conditions in males and non-pregnant females.
Alveoli: Tiny air sacs in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place.
Amniotic Fluid: Clear, almost colorless to pale-yellow fluid that fills the membrane (amnion or amniotic sac) surrounding and cushioning a fetus in the uterus.
Anabolism: A constructive process by which the body converts simple compounds into complex substances needed to carry out the cellular activities of the body.
Anaerobic: Without air.
Analyte: A general term for substance undergoing analysis.
Anatomic Position: Teh position of standing erect, arms at the side, with eyes and palms of hands facing forward.
Anatomy: The structure of an organism, or the science of the structural composition of the body.
Anchor: To secure firmly, as in holding a vein n place by pulling the skin taut with the thumb.
Anemia: An abnormal reduction the number of red blood cells (RBCs) in the circulating blood.
Antecubital Fossa: The area of the arm that is anterior to the and below the bend of the elbow, where the major veins for Venipuncture are located .
Antecubital Veins: Major superficial veins located in the antecubital fossa: Median Cubital Vein, Cephalic Vein, Basilic Vein & Median Vein, Median Cephalic Vein, Median Basilic Vein.
Arteriospasm: A reflex; involuntary contraction of the artery that can be caused by pain or irritation during needle penetration of the artery muscle or that may result from a patient's anxiety during arterial puncture.
Brachial Artery: Artery located in the medial anterior aspect for the antecubital fossa near the insertion of the biceps muscle; the second choice for Arterial Puncture for ABGS
Collateral Circulation: An area supplied with blood from more than one artery so that circulation can be maintained if one vessel is obstructed.
Femoral Artery: Large artery located superficially in te4h groin, lateral to the pubic bone; it is the largest artery used for arterial puncture, but the last choice to be used.
FiO2: Fractional inspired Oxygen, as in oxygen therapy.
L/M: Liters per minute, as in Oxygen Therapy.
Radial Artery: The Artery located at the thumb side of the wrist, which is the First Choice and the most common site used for Arterial Puncture when getting ABGs.
Steady State: Stable condition required before obtaining blood gas specimens; a condition in which there has been no exercise, suctioning, or respirator change for at least 20 to 30 minutes.
Ulnar Artery: Artery located on the medial aspect or little finger side of the wrist.
ARD: Antimicrobial Removal Device: Blood culture bottle containing a resin that removes antimicrobials (antibiotics) from blood specimen.
Autologous: Self Donation: Blood that is donated for one's own use.
BAC: Blood Alcohol Concentration; Concentration of alcohol in a person's blood used as a measurement of intoxication for legal or medical purposes.
Bacteremia: Bacteria in the blood.
BNP: B-type natriuretic peptide; Cardiac hormone produced by the heart in response to ventricular volume expansion and pressure overload.
BT: Bleeding Time Test; Test that measures the time required for blood to stop flowing from a standardized puncture on the inner surface of the forearm.
Chain of Custody: Special strict protocol for forensic specimens that requires detailed documentation tracking the specimen form the time it is collected until the results are reported.
Compatibility: Ability to be mixed together with favorable results, as in blood transfusions.
CRP: C-Reactive protein; A beta-globulin found in the blood that responds to inflammation and therefore can be used as a sensitive though nonspecific marker of systemic inflammation.
EQC: Electronic Quality Control; Electronic devices that can detect problems with specimens, and perform electronic internal checks to determine if the instrument is functioning properly.
ETOH: Ethanol or Blood Alcohol;
FAN: Fastidious Antimicrobial neutralization; blood culture bottle that contains activated charcoal that neutralizes antibiotics in a blood specimen.
FUO: Fever of unknown origin.
GTT: Glucose Tolerance Test; A test use to diagnose carbohydrate metabolism problems.
HCG: Human Chorionic Gonadotropin; Hormone that appears in both urine and serum beginning approximately 10 days after conception. HCG is the substance detected in pregnancy tests.
Hyperglycemia: A condition in which the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood is high, as in diabetes mellitus.
Hypoglycemia: Condition in which the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood is low.
Hyperpokalemia: A high concentration of potassium in the blood.
Hypopokalemia: A low concentration of potassium in the blood
Hypernatremia: A high concentration of sodium in the blood.
Hyponatremia: A low concentration of sodium in the blood.
iCa2+ Ionized Calcium; A form of calcium used by the body for such critical functions as muscular contraction, cardiac function, transmission of nerve impulses and blood clotting.
INR: International Normalized Ratio
K+: Potassium; A mineral that is essential for normal muscle activity and the conduction of nerve impulses.
Lactate: A form of lactic acid that is used as a marker of the severity of metabolic acidosis and a patient's stress response/
Lookback: Program that requires all components of a unit of blood to be traceable back to the donor and that also requires notification to all blood recipients when a donor for blood product they have received has turned positive for a transmissible disease.
Lysis: Rupturing, as in the bursting of Red Blood cells.
NIDA: National Institute on Drug Abuse
Peak Level: Drug level collected when the highest serum concentration of the drug is anticipated.
POCT: Alternate sit testing (AST) or ancillary, bedside, or near-patient testing, often performed using portable or handheld instruments.
PP: Postprandial;After a meal.
Septicemia: Microorganisms or their toxins in the blood.
TDM: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring; Testing of drug levels at specific intervals to help establish a drug dose, maintain the dosage at a therapeutic beneficial level and avoid drug toxicity.
TGC: Tight Glycemic Index; Intensive insulin therapy that involves frequent monitoring of patients's glucose level and administering insulin as required to keep glucose levels in a predetermined normal rang and avoid hyperglycemia.
Tnl: Troponin I; a protein specific to heart muscle used in diagnosing an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or heart attack.
TnT: Troponin T; a protein specific to heart muscle used in diagnosing a heart attack and also to monitor the effectiveness of thrombolytic therapy.
Trough Level: Drug level collected when the lowest serum concentration of the drug is expected, usually immediately prior to administration of the next scheduled dose.
Accession Number: A number generated by the laboratory information system (LIS) when the specimen request in entered into the computer.
Bar Code: A series of black stripes and whit spaces of varying widths that correspond to letters and numbers.
Central Processing: Screening prioritizing area where specimens are received and prepared for testing.
CPU: Central Processing Unit
Centrifuge: A machine that spins the blood tubes at a high number of revolutions per minute.
Cursor: Flashing indicator on the computer screen
Data: Information collected for analysis or computation.
DOT: Department of Transportation
Enter Key: Key on computer keyboard for data input
FAA: Federal Aviation Administration
Hardware: Computer equipment used to process data
HPC: Hand Held PC
Icon: Images used to request the appropriate programs or functions on a computer.
ID code: Unique Identification for users.
Input: To enter data into a computer
Interface: Connect for the purpose of interaction.
LAN: Local Area Network
LIS: Laboratory Information System
Menu: A list of options from which the user may choose.
Mnemonic: Memory-aiding code or abbreviation, as used in LIS for example.
Network: A group of computers linked for the purpose of sharing resources.
Output: Return of processed information or data to the user or to someone in another location.
Password: A secret code that uniquely identifies a person and allows h them to become a system user.
PDA Personal Digital Assistant
Preanalytical: Prior to analysis
QNS: Quantity Not Sufficient
RAM: Random-Access Memory
RFID: Radio Frequency Identification
ROM: Read-Only Memory
Software: Programming or coded instruction required to control the hardware used in processing data.
Storage: The preservateion of data outside the CPU
Terminal: A computer screen and keyboard
USB drive: Universal Serial Bus; a device use for storing information.
AFP: alpha-fetoprotein; Problems in fetal development can be detected by measuring the AFP. Abnormal AFP levels could indicate neural tube defects or Down's Syndrome. Gestation age determines the level of normalcy.
Buccal Swab: Swabs of materials collected from the inside of the cheek.
C&S: Culture and Sensitivity; Microbiology test placing organisms on nutrient media, identifying any that grow, and then performing sensitivity/antibiotic susceptiblility testing to identify antibiotics that will be effective against them.
Catheterized: A urine specimen collected from a sterile catheter inserted through the urethra into the bladder
Clean Catch: Method of obtaining a urine sample so that it is free of contamination from the external genital area.
CSF: Cerebrospinal Fluid; Clear, colorless liquid that circulates within the cavities surrounding the brain and spinal cord; it has many of the same components as plasma
FOBT Fecal Occult Blood Test; A test that detects hidden (occult) blood in stool (feces)
Gastric Analysis A test that examines stomach contents for abnormal substances and measures gastric acid concentration to evaluate stomach acid production.
H. pylori Helicobacter pylori; Bacterial species secreting substances that damage the lining of the stomach and cause chronic gastritis, which can lead to peptic ulcer disease
Iontophoresis: Electrical stimulation from electrodes placed on the skin. Used in the production of sweat in the sweat chloride test
Midstream: Urine collection in which the specimen is collected in the middle of urination rather than at the beginning or end.
NP: Nasopharyngeal; referring to the nasal cavity and pharynx.
O&P: Ova & Parasites; a test to detect the presence of intestinal parasites and their eggs in feces.
Occult Blood test: Hidden Blood; Guaic Test that tests for hidden blood in feces.
Pericardial Fluid: Fluid aspirated from the pericardial cavity that surrounds the heart.
Pertoneal Fluid: Fluid aspirated from the abdominal cavity.
Pleural Fluid: Fluid aspirated from the plueral cavity surrounding the lungs.
Serous Fluid: Pale-yellow , watery fluid found between the dbl layered membranes that enclose the pleural, pericardial, and peritioneal cavities.
Sputum: Mucus or phlegm ejected from the trachea, bronchi, and lungs by deep coughing.
C. difficile: Bacteriums that can inhabit the intestinal tract and proliferate at the expense of normal bacteria in patients on antibiotic therapy.
Created by: jlmillington1