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Respiratory Path.

Pathologic Terms for the Respiratory System

auscultation listening to sounds within the body.
percussion tapping on a surface to determine the difference in the density of the underlying structure.
pleural rub scratchy sound produced by the motion of inflamed or irritated pleural surfaces rubbing against each other; also called a friction rub.
rale (crackle) fine crackling sound heard on auscultation (during inspiration) when there is fluid in the alveoli.
rhonchus (plural: rhonchi) loud rumbling sound heard on auscultation of bronchi obstructed by sputum.
sputum material expelled from the chest by coughing or clearing the throat.
stridor strained, high-pitched, relatively loud sound made on inspiration; associated with obstruction of the larynx or trachea.
wheeze musical sounds usually heard during expiration.
croup acute repiratory syndrome in children and infants; characterized by obstruction of the larynx, barking cough, and stridor.
diphtheria acute infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract caused by diphtheria (corynebacterium).
epistaxis nosebleed.
pertussis bacterial infection of the pharynx, larynx, and trachea by bordetella pertussis, a highly contagious bacterium.
asthma spasm and narrowing of bronchi, which leads to bronchial airway obstruction.
bronchiectasis chronic dilation of a bronchus or bronchi; secondary to infection that usually involves the lower portion of the lung.
chronic bronchitis inflammation of the bronchi that persists for a long time.
cystic fibrosis inherited disease of exocrine glands (pancreas, sweat glands, and mucous membranes of the respiratory tract) that leads to airway obstruction
atelectasis incomplete expansion of alveoli; collapsed functionless, airless lung or portion of a lung.
emphysema Hyperinflation of air sacs with destruction of aveolar walls
lung cancer Malignant tumor arising from the lungs and bronchi
pneumoconiosis abnormal condition caused by dust in the lungs, with chronic inflammation, infection, and bronchitis
pneumonia acute inflammation and infection of alveoli, which fill with pus or products of the inflammatory reaction
pulmonary abscess a large collection of pus (bacterial infection) in the lungs
pulmonary edema swelling and fluid in the air sacs and bronchioles
pulmonary embolism (PE) clot (thrombus) or other material lodges in vessels of the lung
pulmonary fibrosis formation of scar tissue in the connective tissue of the lungs
sarcoidosis chronic inflammatory disease of unknown cause in which small nodules or tubercles develop in lungs, lymph nodes, and other organs
tuberculosis (TB) infectious disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis; lungs usually are involved, but any other organ in the body may be affected
mesothelioma rare malignant tumor arising in the pleura; associated with asbestos exposure
pleural effusion abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space (cavity)
pleurisy inflammation of the pleura
pneumothorax collection of air in the pleural space (cavity)
chest x-ray (CXR) radiographic image of the thoracic cavity (chest film)
computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest computer-generated x-ray images show thoracic structures in cross section
pulmonary angiography or arteriography x-ray images are obtained after radiopaque contrast is injected into the pulmonary artery
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the chest magnetic waves create detailed images of the chest in frontal, lateral, and cross-sectional (axial) planes
positron emission tomography (PET) scan of the lung radioactive substance is injected and images reveal metabolic activity in the lung
ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scan detection device records radioactivity in the lung after injection of a radioisotope or inhalation of small amount of radioactive gas (xenon)
bronchoscopy fiberoptic or rigid endoscope inserted into the bronchial tubes for diagnosis, biopsy, or collection of specimens
endotracheal intubation placement of a tube through the mouth into the pharynx, larynx, and trachea the establish an airway
laryngoscopy visual examination of the voice box
lung biopsy removal of lung tissue followed by microscopic examination
mediastinoscopy endoscopic visual examination of the mediastinum
pulmonary function tests (PFTs) tests measure the ventilation mechanics of the lung (airway function, lung volume, and capacity of the lungs to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide efficiently)
thoracentesis surgical puncture to remove fluid fron the pleural space
thoracotomy major surgical incision of the chest
thoracoscopy (thorascopy) visual examination of the chest via small incisions and use of an endoscope
tracheostomy surgical creation of an opening into the trachea through the neck
tuberculin test determines past or present tuberculous infection based on a positive skin reaction
tube thoracostomy chest tube is passed through an opening in the skin of the chest to continuously drain a pleural effusion
bronchogenic carcinoma cancerous tumors arising from a bronchus; lung cancer
Created by: vikingmedterm