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ANA 534 T2 Heart

learning objective answers to heart

QuestionAnswer
In which specific region of the thorax is the heart and its pericardial sac located? The middle mediastinum.
The apex of the heart projects in which direction? Inferiorly and to the left.
What is the ligamentum arteriosum and what was its fetal function? obliterated ductus arteriosum. Fetally used as a bypass for fetal blood that passed into rt ventricle by not passing through foramen ovale it is shunted out into aorta rather than continuing out into the lungs as oxygenation is neither needed or possible.
What is the moderator band? Where is it found? What is its function? A band of cardiac muscle that stretches from the septal wall of the right ventricle to the base of the anterior papillary muscle. It contains Purkinje fibers so is thought to represent a shortcut for the conducting system of the heart.
Name the parts of the septum found between the right and left heart. From the base up: the muscular interventricular septum, the membranous interventricular septum, the membranous atrioventricular septum and the membranous interatrial septum.
What was the fossa ovalis in the fetus? What was it’s function? The foramen ovale. A fetal bypass for oxygenated blood, bypassing the right ventricle and lungs.
Know the arrangement of the various components of the AV and semilunar valves. An AV valve consists of the cusp, the fibrous chordae tendineae and a papillary muscle. A semilunar valve consists of a fibrous cusp, a thin flexible edge on the cusp - the lunule and a geometric central portion of the lunule - the nodule.
Be able to name each cusp of the semilunar and A-V valves. Pulmonary semilunar: anterior, left and right; aortic semilunar: left, right and posterior; mitral valve: anterior and posterior; tricuspid valve; anterior, posterior and septal.
What is the function of the papillary mm.? They contract to pull down on the chordae tendineae which in turn prevent the cusps of the AV valves from everting into the atria during contraction of the ventricle.
What is the fibrous skeleton of the heart? A fibrous thickening (network) within the cardiac muscle surrounding the various valvular openings of the heart.
What is the function of the fibrous skeleton? Provides for the sturdy attachment of the cusps of both the AV and semilunar valves of the heart.
How does the morphology of the fibrous skeleton differ around AV as opposed to semilunar 
valves? Around the AV openings the skeleton is ring-like. Around the semilunar openings the skeleton is cuff-like to allow attachment of the pocket-like cusps.
Which spinal cord levels contain sympathetic neurons associated with innervating the 
cardiopulmonary plexus? T1 to T5.
How do these fibers access the plexus? Via the cardiac cervical rami.
Where do the parasympathetic fibers that penetrate this plexus come from? The vagus nerve (CN X).
What is the function of each ANS fiber type in the heart? Parasympathetic fibers slow heart rate, sympathetic fibers speed heart rate.
What is the function of each ANS fiber type in the lungs? Parasympathetic fibers constrict smooth muscle, sympathetic fibers relax smooth muscle.
State the location of the SA node of the conduction system of the heart. The SA nodes is found subepicardially between the base of the superior vena cava and the top of the sulcus terminalis on the right atrium.
Be able to trace the pathway of impulse conduction in the heart. From the cardiac plexus - SA node - internodal fibers traverse the atrial wall - AV node - AV bundle to the top of the muscular interventricular septum - bundles of HIS spread impulse throughout entire left and right ventricular walls.
What cells comprise the bundles of His? Purkinje fibers.
They are modified ___________ cells. Cardiac muscle fibers (cells).
Between which two anatomical components of the right ventricle does the moderator 
(septomarginal) band extend? The muscular interventricular septum to the base of the anterior papillary muscle of the right ventricle.
What is meant by the indirect nature of the venous drainage of the heart? Venous blood from the heart does not drain directly back to the right atrium but first drains to the coronary sinus which in turn drains to the right atrium - indirect venous drainage.
Name an exception to this indirect venous drainage - and the locations drained. The anterior cardiac veins. They drain blood from the right ventricle directly back into the right atrium. In addition tiny veins (venae cordis minimae) drain tiny amounts of venous blood directly back into all 4 chambers.
List the 3 arterial coronary anastomoses? 1. Betweeen the continuation of the RCA and circumflex aa.; 2. Between the anterior interventricular and posterior interventricular aa.; and 3. Between anterior and posterior interventricluar aa. within the muscular interventricular septum of the heart.
Where are these major arterial anastomoses of the heart located? On the posterior surface (except for the interventricular septal ones).
What is the function of these anastomoses? They allow small amounts of blood to pass between the RCA and LCA. However, they are generally referred to as insufficient anastomoses as insufficent amounts of blood pass between these vessels to prevent significant heart (myocardium) damage.
Which vessels primarily supply the muscular interventricular septum? Anterior and posterior interventricular arteries - the larger branches come from the anterior interventricular artery.
Typically, which coronary a. is most dominant? The left coronary artery is typically dominant.
State the location of the AV node of the conductions system of the heart. The AV node is found subendocardially between the opening of the coronary sinus and the tricuspid valve on the inside of the right atrium.
Created by: wiechartm