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Chapter5 c

Adaptive strategies Unique way in cultures do things
Agrarian People or societies that are farmers therefore promote agricultural interest ext. -Where agrarian people and societies are located is not generally near cities ext. but these types of people are essential to the way that we live and our ability to live i
Agribusiness Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
Agricultural Industrialization The use of machinery in agriculture, like tractors ext. - Makes it a lot faster for farmers to yield crop
Agricultural landscape The land that we farm on and what we choose to put were on our fields. - Effects how much yield one gets from their plants.
Agricultural location model explains the pattern of agriculture
Agricultural Origins Through time nomadic people noticed the growing of plants in a cycle and began to domesticate them and use for there own use. Carl Sauer points out vegetative planting and seed agriculture as the original forms. He also points out that vegetative planting
Agriculture The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth’s surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for subsistence or economic gain. -It has influenced the growth of areas and human society
Animal Domestication : Domestication of animals for selling or using byproducts. -Helped us obtain meat with out having to go out and kill our food right before dinner
Aquaculture The cultivation of aquatic organisms especially for food -Allowed us to use the sea and its abundant sources of food for our benefit
Biorevolution The revolution of biotechnology and the use of it in societies. - See reasoning for below term
Biotechnology Using living organisms in a useful way to produce commercial products like pest resistant crops. -Has helped the farmers grow a more bountiful harvest through the using of pesticides ext.
Collective farm organized by group of farmers running the farm
Commercial Agriculture (intensive, extensive) Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm. -Allowed people to move away from farms- fueled industrial revolution
Core/Periphery The areas in the world that include MDCs are called the core and the area of the world that contains the LDCs is referred to as the periphery.
Crop Rotation The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil. -Takes up large areas of land but keeps land usable for future generations
Cultivation regions Regions were there is agricultural activity - Areas with agricultural activity generally are not a place were a big city would be located- affects locations of different areas.
Dairying The “farming” and sale/distribution of milk and milk products. -Gets us calcium, allows for people to move to the city because there is a way of getting milk or milk products.
Debt-for-nature swap When agencies such as the World Bank make a deal with third world countries that they will cancel their debt if the country will set aside a certain amount of their natural resources
Diffusion The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time
Double Cropping : Harvesting twice a year from the same land -Can cause agricultural exhaustion making people move away from the land
Economic activity (primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary, quinary) Primary: Involves jobs like lumber and mining Secondary: Manufacturing products and assembling raw materials Tertiary: The service sector that provides us with transportation, communication and utilities
Quaternary geological time
Quinary numbering system
Environmental Modifications (pesticides, soil erosion, desertification) The destruction of the environment for the purpose of farming. (Using pesticides that drain in to the water and soil and pollute them overuse of land causing the desert like conditions of desertification (dust bowl). -Doing harm to the envir
Extensive subsistence agriculture (shifting cultivation, nomadic herding/pastoralism) Shifting Cultivation: Use many fields for crop growing each field is used for a couple years then left fallow for a relatively long time. Nomadic herding/pastorilism:Based on herding domesticated animals - Effect the way that some in the wor
Extractive Industry Extraction of raw materials
Farm crises Combination of natural disasters
Farming see agriculture
Feedlot a plot of land on which livestock are fattened for market -Essential to how we live and eat today- necessity for most people’s diets
First agricultural revolution Around 8000 B.C. when humans first domesticated plants and animals. -This allowed for future generations to grow larger because they no longer we just a hunter gatherer society
Fishing The technique, occupation, or diversion of catching fish. Fishing provides a food source and employment to society
Food Chain A series of organisms interrelated in their feeding habits, the smallest being fed upon by a larger one, which in turn feeds a still larger one, etc
Forestry The science of planting and taking care of trees and forests. Trees provide building materials and fuel to society
Globalized Agriculture – Diffusion of agriculture across the globe
Green Revolution Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizer. Because of Green Revolution, agricultural productivity at a global scale has increased faster than the population
Growing Season The season in which crops grow best. Growing season can vary by location, societies rely on their growing season to which crops they can or can’t grow at their latitude
Hunting and Gathering Before the agriculture, humans gained food by hunting for animals, fishing, or gathering plants. They lived in small groups (less than 50 people), traveled frequently following game and seasonal growth of plants
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasibly yield from a parcel of land. Popular in East, South, and Southeast Asia, because the ratio between farmers and arable land i
Intertillage Tillage between rows of crops of plants.
Livestock Ranching commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area. Practiced is semi-arid or arid land, where vegetation is too sparse or the soil to too poor to support crops. Prominent in later 19th century in the American West; ranchers free roamed throughout the
Market Gardening The small scale production of fruits, vegetables, and flowers as cash crops sold directly to local consumers. Distinguishable by the large diversity of crops grown on a small area of land, during a single growing season. Labor is done manually
Mediterranean Agriculture Farming in the land surrounding the Mediterranean Sea (Southern Europe, North Africa, and Western Asia), also in lands with similar climates (California, central Chile, Southwestern South Africa, and Southwestern Australia). Sea winds provide moisture and
Mineral Fuels Natural resources containing hydrocarbons, which are not derived from animal or plant sources.
Mining – Extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the Earth, usually from an ore body, vein, or coal seam. Any material that cannot be grown from agricultural processes, or created artificially, is mined (mining in a wider sense then in
Planned Economy Economic system in which a single agency makes all decisions about the production and allocation of goods and services. Commonly used in which state or government controls the factors of production and makes all decisions about their use and about the dis
Renewable Energy replaced continually within a human lifespan, has an essentially unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by people. Solar energy, hydroelectric, geothermal, fusion and wind, are the most widely used
Non-Renewable Energy formed so slowly that for practical purposes it cannot be renewed. The three main fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas, and coal) plus nuclear energy are the most widely used, mostly because they are more cost efficient
Rural Settlement – Sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities. Live in villages, hamlets on farms, or in other isolated houses. Typically have an agricultural character, with an economy based on logging, mining, petroleum, natural gas or tourism. -D
Sauer, Carl O. defined cultural landscape, as an area fashioned from nature by a cultural group. A combination of cultural features such as language and religion; economic features such as agriculture and industry; and physical features such as climate and vegetation. “
Second Agricultural Revolution Precursor to Industrial Revolution in the 19th century, that allowed a shift in work force beyond subsistence farming to allow labor to work in factories. Started in United Kingdom, Netherlands, and Denmark, especially with the Enclosure Act, which consol
Specialization Third level of cities (behind World Cities, and Command and Control Centers), offer a narrow and highly specialized variety of services. Typically specialize in management, research and development of a specific industry (motor vehicles in Detroit), or ar
Staple Grains Maize, wheat, and rice are the most produced grains produced world wide, accounting for 87% of all grains and 43% of all food. Maize staple food of North America, South American, Africa, and livestock worldwide, wheat is primary in temperate regions, and
Suitcase Farm Individuals who live in urban areas a great distance from their land and drive to the country to care for their crops and livestock. This practice lends itself well to the growth of wheat. Allows families to continue their long relationships with the ance
Survey Patterns -Long Lots (French) – Houses erected on narrow lots perpendicular along a river, so that each original settler had equal river access. -Metes and Bounds (English) – Uses physical features of the local geography, along with directions and distances, to
Sustainable Yield – Ecological yield that can be extracted without reducing the base of capital itself, the surplus required to maintain nature’s services at the same or increasing level over time. Example, in fisheries the basic natural capital decreases with extraction,
Third Agricultural Revolution –‘Green Revolution’ Rapid diffusion of new agricultural techniques between 1970’s and 1980’s, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers. Has caused agricultural productivity at a global scale to increase faster than population growth.
Mechanization Farmers need tractors, irrigation pumps, and other machinery to make the most effective use of the new miracle seeds. Farmer’s in LDC’s cannot afford this machinery or the fuel to run the equipment, so governments must allocate funds to subsidizing the co
Chemical Farming Increased use of fertilizers with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. The development of higher-yield crops has produced: a ‘miracle wheat seed” which is shorter and stiffer, less sensitive to variation in day length, responds better to fertilizers, and
Food Manufacturing the Green Revolution has increased production to avoid widespread famine. Allowing the world population to grow about four billion since stared, also allowing populations in developing nations to consume 25% more than before. This increase in diets is que
‘Tragedy of the Commons’ social trap that involves a conflict over resources between interests and the common good
Transhumance pastoral practice of seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pasture areas
Truck Farm – Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English word meaning bartering or the exchange of commodities. Predominant in Southeastern U.S.A, because of the long growing season and humid climate, accessibility to large ma
Von Thunen, Johann Heinrich – 1826, Northern Germany. When choosing an enterprise, a commercial farmer compares two costs; cost of the land versus the cost of transporting production to market. Identifies a crop that can be sold for more than the land cost, distance of land to marke
Created by: molly834
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