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AP Human Vocab V

Adaptive strategies Tactics used and practiced to help ensure survival in a specific situation
Agrarian People or societies that are farmers therefore promote agricultural interest
Agribusiness Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations. It influences how things are grown and what people eat
Agricultural Industrialization The use of machinery in agriculture
Agricultural landscape The land that we farm on and what we choose to put were on our fields
Agricultural location model Model displaying the location of different agricultural tiers
Agricultural Origins Nomadic people noticed the growing of plants in a cycle and began to domesticate them and use them. Vegetative planting likely was originated in SE Asia and seed agriculture originated in W. India, N. China and Ethiopia.
Agriculture The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth’s surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for subsistence or economic gain.
Animal Domestication Domestication of animals for selling or using byproducts
Aquaculture The cultivation of aquatic organisms especially for food
Biorevolution The revolution of biotechnology and the use of it in societies.
Biotechnology Using living organisms in a useful way to produce commercial products like pest resistant crops.
Collective farm A farm where its workers pool their resources together in hopes of becoming more prodecutive
Commercial Agriculture (intensive, extensive) Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
Core/Periphery The areas in the world that include MDCs are called the core and the area of the world that contains the LDCs is referred to as the periphery.
Crop Rotation The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil
Cultivation regions Regions were there is agricultural activity
Dairying The “farming” and sale/distribution of milk and milk products
Debt-for-nature swap When agencies such as the World Bank make a deal with third world countries that they will cancel their debt if the country will set aside a certain amount of their natural resources
Diffusion The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time
Double Cropping Harvesting twice a year from the same land
Primary Activity Involves jobs like lumber and mining
Secondary activity Manufacturing products and assembling raw materials
Teritary activity The service sector that provides us with transportation, communication and utilities
Quaternaty activity Based around information and technology
Quinary Focuses on government, culture, and research
Environmental Modifications (pesticides, soil erosion, desertification) The destruction of the environment for the purpose of farming.
Extensive subsistence agriculture (shifting cultivation, nomadic herding/pastoralism) Shifting Cultivation: Use many fields for crop growing each field is used for a couple years then left fallow for a relatively long time. Nomadic herding/pastorilism:Based on herding domesticated animals
Extractive Industry Processes that extract resources from the Earth to be used by consumers
Farm crises Agricultural recession
Farming Agriculture
Feedlot a plot of land on which livestock are fattened for market
First agricultural revolution Around 8000 B.C. when humans first domesticated plants and animals
Fishing The technique, occupation, or diversion of catching fish. Fishing provides a food source and employment to society.
Food Chain A series of organisms interrelated in their feeding habits, the smallest being fed upon by a larger one, which in turn feeds a still larger one, etc
Forestry The science of planting and taking care of trees and forests. Trees provide building materials and fuel to society
Globalized Agriculture Diffusion of agriculture across the globe
Green Revolution Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizer. Because of Green Revolution, agricultural productivity at a global scale has increased faster than the population
Growing Season The season in which crops grow best. Growing season can vary by location, societies rely on their growing season to which crops they can or can’t grow at their latitude
Hunting and Gathering Before the agriculture, humans gained food by hunting for animals, fishing, or gathering plants. They lived in small groups (less than 50 people), traveled frequently following game and seasonal growth of plants
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasibly yield from a parcel of land.
Intertillage Tillage between rows of crops of plants
Livestock Ranching commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area
Market Gardening The small scale production of fruits, vegetables, and flowers as cash crops sold directly to local consumers. Distinguishable by the large diversity of crops grown on a small area of land, during a single growing season. Labor is done manually
Mediterranean Agriculture Farming in the land surrounding the Mediterranean Sea also in lands with similar climates
Mineral Fuels Natural resources containing hydrocarbons, which are not derived from animal or plant sources
Mining – Extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the Earth, usually from an ore body, vein, or coal seam.
Planned Economy Economic system in which a single agency makes all decisions about the production and allocation of goods and services.
Renewable Energy replaced continually within a human lifespan, has an essentially unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by people. Solar energy, hydroelectric, geothermal, fusion and wind, are the most widely used.
Non-Renewable – Energy formed so slowly that for practical purposes it cannot be renewed. The three main fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas, and coal) plus nuclear energy are the most widely used, mostly because they are more cost efficient.
Rural Settlement Sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities. Live in villages, hamlets on farms, or in other isolated houses. Typically have an agricultural character, with an economy based on logging, mining, petroleum, natural gas or tourism.
Dispersed Settlement Characterized by farmers living on individual farms isolated from neighbors rather than alongside other farmers in the area
Nucleated Settlement a number of families live in close proximity to each other, with fields surrounding the collection of houses and farm buildings
Building Material houses and buildings are typically built from materials that are abundant in the area
Village Form Shapes of villages
Sauer, Carl O. defined cultural landscape, as an area fashioned from nature by a cultural group. A combination of cultural features such as language and religion; economic features such as agriculture and industry; and physical features such as climate and vegetation.
Second Agricultural Revolution Precursor to Industrial Revolution in the 19th century, that allowed a shift in work force beyond subsistence farming to allow labor to work in factories.
Specialization Third level of cities , offer a narrow and highly specialized variety of services. Typically specialize in management, research and development of a specific industry
Staple Grains – Maize, wheat, and rice are the most produced grains produced world wide, accounting for 87% of all grains and 43% of all food.
Suitcase Farm Individuals who live in urban areas a great distance from their land and drive to the country to care for their crops and livestock.
Long Lots (French) Houses erected on narrow lots perpendicular along a river, so that each original settler had equal river access.
Metes and Bounds (English) Uses physical features of the local geography, along with directions and distances, to define the boundaries of a particular piece of land. Metes is a boundary defined by a measurement of a straight run, bounds is a more general boundary, such as a wall
Township-and-Range (U.S.A) Survey’s used west of Ohio, after the Louisiana Purchase. Land is divided into six-mile blocks (township), which is then divided into one-mile square blocks (range). Ranges were then broken into smaller parcels to be sold or given to people.
Sustainable Yield Ecological yield that can be extracted without reducing the base of capital itself, the surplus required to maintain nature’s services at the same or increasing level over time
Third Agricultural Revolution Green Revolution’ Rapid diffusion of new agricultural techniques between 1970’s and 1980’s, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers. Has caused agricultural productivity at a global scale to increase faster than population growth.
Mechanization Farmers need tractors, irrigation pumps, and other machinery to make the most effective use of the new miracle seeds.
Chemical Farming Increased use of fertilizers with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.
Food Manufacturing the Green Revolution has increased production to avoid widespread famine. Allowing the world population to grow about four billion since stared, also allowing populations in developing nations to consume 25% more than before.
‘Tragedy of the Commons’ social trap that involves a conflict over resources between interests and the common good
Transhumance pastoral practice of seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pasture areas
Truck Farm Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English word meaning bartering or the exchange of commodities
Von Thunen, Johann Heinrich 1826, Northern Germany. Commercial farmers compare two costs; cost of land vs cost of transportation. Distance is critical because the transportation cost varies. Found that crops were grown in rings around city.
Created by: Shivuvu
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