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Agrarian: People or societies that are farmers therefore promote agricultural interest ext. -Where agrarian people and societies are located is not generally near cities
Agribusiness: Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
Agricultural Industrialization: The use of machinery in agriculture, like tractors
Agricultural landscape: The land that we farm on and what we choose to put were on our fields.
Agricultural location model: Through time nomadic people noticed the growing of plants in a cycle and began to domesticate them and use for there own use.
Agricultural Origins: The cultivation of aquatic organisms especially for food -Allowed us to use the sea and its abundant sources of food for our benefit
Agriculture: The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth’s surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for subsistence or economic gain.
Animal Domestication: Domestication of animals for selling or using byproducts.
Aquaculture: The cultivation of aquatic organisms especially for food
Biorevolution: The revolution of biotechnology and the use of it in societies. - See reasoning for below term
Biotechnology: Using living organisms in a useful way to produce commercial products like pest resistant crops. -Has helped the farmers grow a more bountiful harvest through the using of pesticides ext.
Commercial Agriculture (intensive, extensive): Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm. -Allowed people to move away from farms- fueled industrial revolution
Core/Periphery: The areas in the world that include MDCs are called the core and the area of the world that contains the LDCs is referred to as the periphery
Crop Rotation: The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil. -Takes up large areas of land but keeps land usable for future generations
Cultivation regions: Regions were there is agricultural activity - Areas with agricultural activity generally are not a place were a big city would be located- affects locations of different areas.
Dairying: The “farming” and sale/distribution of milk and milk products.
Debt-for-nature swap: When agencies such as the World Bank make a deal with third world countries that they will cancel their debt if the country will set aside a certain amount of their natural resources.
Diffusion: The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time.
Double Cropping: Harvesting twice a year from the same land
Feedlot: a plot of land on which livestock are fattened for market
Fishing – The technique, occupation, or diversion of catching fish. Fishing provides a food source and employment to society.
Food Chain – A series of organisms interrelated in their feeding habits, the smallest being fed upon by a larger one, which in turn feeds a still larger one
Forestry – The science of planting and taking care of trees and forests. Trees provide building materials and fuel to society.
Globalized Agriculture – Diffusion of agriculture across the globe.
Green Revolution – Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizer. Because of Green Revolution, agricultural productivity at a global scale has increased faster than the population.
Growing Season – The season in which crops grow best. Growing season can vary by location, societies rely on their growing season to which crops they can or can’t grow at their latitude.
Hunting and Gathering – Before the agriculture, humans gained food by hunting for animals, fishing, or gathering plants. They lived in small groups (less than 50 people), traveled frequently following game and seasonal growth of plants
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture – farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasibly yield from a parcel of land
Intertillage – Tillage between rows of crops of plants.
Livestock Ranching – Prominent in later 19th century in the American West;until the U.S. government began selling land to farmers who outlined their farms with barbed wire, forcing the ranchers to establish large ranches to allow their cattle to graze.
Market Gardening – The small scale production of fruits, vegetables, and flowers as cash crops sold directly to local consumers. Distinguishable by the large diversity of crops grown on a small area of land, during a single growing season. Labor is done manually
Mediterranean Agriculture – Farming in the land surrounding the Mediterranean Sea (Southern Europe, North Africa, and Western Asia), also in lands with similar climates (California, central Chile, Southwestern South Africa, and Southwestern Australia).
Mineral Fuels – Natural resources containing hydrocarbons, which are not derived from animal or plant sources.
Mining – Extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the Earth, usually from an ore body, vein, or coal seam. Any material that cannot be grown from agricultural processes, or created artificially
Planned Economy – Economic system in which a single agency makes all decisions about the production and allocation of goods and services.State or government controls the factors of production and makes all decisions about their use and about the distribution of income.
Renewable – Energy replaced continually within a human lifespan, has an essentially unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by people. Solar energy, hydroelectric, geothermal, fusion and wind, are the most widely used.
Non-Renewable – Energy formed so slowly that for practical purposes it cannot be renewed. The three main fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas, and coal) plus nuclear energy are the most widely used, mostly because they are more cost efficient.
Rural Settlement – -Dispersed –Characterized by farmers living on individual farms isolated from neighbors rather than alongside other farmers in the area.Nucleated – a number of families live in close proximity to each other, with fields surrounding the collection
Sauer, Carl O. – defined cultural landscape, as an area fashioned from nature by a cultural group. A combination of cultural features such as language and religion; economic features such as agriculture and industry; and physical features such as climate and vegetation.
Second Agricultural Revolution – Precursor to Industrial Revolution in the 19th century, that allowed a shift in work force beyond subsistence farming to allow labor to work in factories.
Specialization – Third level of cities (behind World Cities, and Command and Control Centers), offer a narrow and highly specialized variety of services.
Staple Grains – Maize, wheat, and rice are the most produced grains produced world wide, ]Maize staple food of North America, South American, Africa, and livestock worldwide, wheat is primary in temperate regions, and rice in tropical regions.
Suitcase Farm – Individuals who live in urban areas a great distance from their land and drive to the country to care for their crops and livestock. This practice lends itself well to the growth of wheat.
Survey Patterns – Long Lots (French) – Houses on narrow lots along a river, so that each original settler had equal river access.Metes and Bounds (English)Uses physical features of the local geography with directions and distances, to define the boundaries of land.
Township-and-Range (U.S.A) – Survey’s used west of Ohio, after the purchase of the Louisiana Purchase. Land is divided into six-mile square blocks (township), which is then divided into one-mile square blocks (range).
Sustainable Yield – Ecological yield that can be extracted without reducing the base of capital itself, the surplus required to maintain nature’s services at the same or increasing level over time.
Third Agricultural Revolution –‘ Green Revolution’ Rapid diffusion of new agricultural techniques between 1970’s and 1980’s, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers. Has caused agricultural productivity at a global scale to increase faster than population growth.
Mechanization – Farmers need tractors, irrigation pumps, and other machinery to make the most effective use of the new miracle seeds. Farmer’s in LDC’s cannot afford this machinery or the fuel to run the equipment
Chemical Farming – Increased use of fertilizers with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.
Food Manufacturing – the Green Revolution has increased production to avoid widespread famine. Allowing the world population to grow about four billion since stared, also allowing populations in developing nations to consume 25% more than before.
‘Tragedy of the Commons’ – social trap that involves a conflict over resources between interests and the common good.
Transhumance – pastoral practice of seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pasture areas.
Truck Farm – Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English word meaning bartering or the exchange of commodities. Predominant in Southeastern U.S.A.
Von Thunen, Johann Heinrich –1826, Northern Germany. When choosing an enterprise, a commercial farmer compares two costs; cost of the land versus the cost of transporting production to market. Identifies a crop that can be sold for more than the land cost, distance of land to market is critical.
Created by: MadelineLocklear



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