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AP Human Vocab 5

Vocab for Unit 5

TermDefinition
Adaptive strategies way in which each culture uses it's particular physical environment
Agrarian People or societies that are farmers
Agribusiness Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry
Agricultural Industrialization Use of machinery in agriculture
Agricultural landscape Land that we farm on and what we choose to put where on our fields
Agricultural location model explains the pattern of agricultural land use in terms of accessibility, costs, distance, and prices
Agricultural Origins Nomadic people noticed the growing of plants in a cycle and began to domesticate them
Agriculture Effort to modify a portion of Earth’s surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock
Animal Domestication Domestication of animals for selling or using byproducts
Aquaculture Cultivation of aquatic organisms
Biorevolution Biotechnology and the use of it in societies
Biotechnology Using living organisms in a useful way to produce commercial products
Collective farm number of farms organized as a unit
Commercial Agriculture Generates products for sale off the farm
Core/Periphery Areas in the world that include MDCs and area of the world that contains the LDCs is referred to as the periphery
Crop Rotation Rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year
Cultivation regions Regions were there is agricultural activity
Dairying "Farming” and sale/distribution of milk and milk products
Debt-for-nature swap Agencies make deal with third world countries that they will cancel their debt if the country will set aside a certain amount of their natural resources
Diffusion Spread of a feature or trend from one place to another
Double Cropping Harvesting twice a year from the same land
Primary economic activity Involves jobs like lumber and mining
Secondary economic activity Manufacturing products and assembling raw materials
Tertiary economic activity The service sector that provides us with transportation, communication and utilities
Quaternary economic activity consists of intellectual activities like government, culture, libraries, scientific research, and education
Quinary economic activity highest levels of decision making in a society or economy like government, science, universities, and the media
Environmental Modifications Destruction of the environment for the purpose of farming
Shifting Cultivation Using many fields for crop growing
Nomadic herding Herding domesticated animals
Extractive Industry responsible for providing the raw materials that make it possible for you to survive
Farm crisis describing times of agricultural recession, low crop prices and low farm incomes that can lead to farm bankruptcy
Farming rowing crops and raising livestock
Feedlot plot of land on which livestock are fattened for market
First agricultural revolution Around 8000 B.C. when humans first domesticated plants and animals
Fishing Catching fish
Food Chain Series of organisms interrelated in their feeding habits
Forestry Science of planting and taking care of trees and forests
Globalized Agriculture Diffusion of agriculture
Green Revolution Diffusion of new agricultural technology
Growing Season Season in which crops grow best
Hunting and Gathering Humans gained food by hunting for animals, fishing, or gathering plants
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture Farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort
Intertillage Tillage between rows of crops of plants
Livestock Ranching Commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area
Market Gardening Small scale production of fruits, vegetables, and flowers
Mediterranean Agriculture Farming in the land surrounding the Mediterranean Sea
Mineral Fuels Natural resources containing hydrocarbons
Mining Extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the Earth
Planned Economy Economic system in which a single agency makes all decisions
Renewable Energy replaced continually within a human lifespan
Non-Renewable Energy formed so slowly that for practical purposes it cannot be renewed
Rural Settlement Sparsely settled places
Dispersed Settlement Characterized by farmers living on individual farms
Nucleated Settlement a number of families live in close proximity to each other
Building Material houses and buildings are typically built from materials that are abundant
Village Form small community or group of houses in a rural area
Sauer, Carl O. defined cultural landscape, as an area fashioned from nature by a cultural group
Second Agricultural Revolution Precursor to Industrial Revolution in the 19th century, that allowed a shift in work force
Specialization A narrow and highly specialized variety of services
Staple Grains Maize, wheat, and rice are the most produced grains produced world wide
Long Lots Survey Patterns Houses erected on narrow lots perpendicular along a river
Metes and Bounds Survey Patterns physical features of the local geography, along with directions and distances, to define the boundaries of a particular piece of land
Township-and-Range Survey’s used west of Ohio
Sustainable Yield Ecological yield that can be extracted without reducing the base of capital itself
Third Agricultural Revolution diffusion of new agricultural techniques between 1970’s and 1980’s, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers
Mechanization Farmers need tractors, irrigation pumps, and other machinery to make the most effective use of the new miracle seeds
Chemical Farming Increased use of fertilizers with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium
Food Manufacturing increased production to avoid widespread famine
Tragedy of the Commons social trap that involves a conflict over resources between interests and the common good
Transhumance seasonal migration of livestock
Truck Farm gardening and fruit farming
Von Thunen, Johann Heinrich cost of the land versus the cost of transporting production to market
Created by: BriannaRiddick