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Unit 5 Roseanna

AP Human Geography 4B

Adaptive strategies technology, ecology, demography, and economies that define human behavior
Agrarian People or societies that are farmers therefore promote agricultural interest ext.
Agribusiness Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
Agricultural Industrialization The use of machinery in agriculture, like tractors ext.
Agricultural landscape The land that we farm on and what we choose to put were on our fields.
Agricultural location model An attempt to explain the pattern of agricultural land use in terms of accessibility, costs, distance, and prices.
Agricultural Origins Through time nomadic people noticed the growing of plants in a cycle & began to domesticate them & use for their own use.
Agriculture The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth’s surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for subsistence or economic gain
Animal Domestication Domestication of animals for selling or using byproducts.
Aquaculture The cultivation of aquatic organisms especially for food
Biorevolution The revolution of biotechnology and the use of it in societies
Biotechnology Using living organisms in a useful way to produce commercial products like pest resistant crops.
Collective farm government-owned farms and employed large numbers of workers; all crops distributed by the gov't
Commercial Agriculture (intensive, extensive) Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm
Core/Periphery The areas in the world that include MDCs are called the core and the area of the world that contains the LDCs is referred to as the periphery.
Crop Rotation The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
Cultivation regions Regions where there is agricultural activity
Dairying The “farming” and sale/distribution of milk and milk products.
Debt-for-nature swap When agencies such as the World Bank make a deal with third world countries that they will cancel their debt if the country will set aside a certain amount of their natural resources
Diffusion The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time.
Double Cropping Harvesting twice a year from the same land
Economic activity primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary, quinary
Primary Involves jobs like lumber and mining
Secondary Manufacturing products and assembling raw materials
Tertiary The service sector that provides us with transportation, communication and utilities
Quaternary Service sector industries concerned with the collection, processing, and manipulation of information and capital
Quinary Service sector industries that require a high level of specialized knowledge or technical skill.
Environmental Modifications (pesticides, soil erosion, desertification) The destruction of the environment for the purpose of farming. (Using pesticides that drain in to the water and soil and pollute them overuse of land causing the desert like conditions of desertification (dust bowl).
Extensive subsistence agriculture shifting cultivation, nomadic herding/pastoralism
Shifting Cultivation Use many fields for crop growing each field is used for a couple years then left fallow for a relatively long time.
Nomadic herding/pastorilism Based on herding domesticated animals
Extractive Industry Industries involved in the activities of prospecting, exploring, developing, and producing for non-regenerative natural resources from the Earth
Farm crises The mass production of farm products that lowers the prices, which lowers the profits for farmers.
Farming Working the land as an occupation or way of life
Feedlot a plot of land on which livestock are fattened for market
First agricultural revolution Around 8000 B.C. when humans first domesticated plants and animals.
Fishing The technique, occupation, or diversion of catching fish.
Food Chain A series of organisms interrelated in their feeding habits, the smallest being fed upon by a larger one, which in turn feeds a still larger one, etc.
Forestry The science of planting and taking care of trees and forests.
Globalized Agriculture Diffusion of agriculture across the globe
Green Revolution Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizer.
Growing Season The season in which crops grow best. Growing season can vary by location, societies rely on their growing season to which crops they can or can’t grow at their latitude.
Hunting and Gathering Before the agriculture, humans gained food by hunting for animals, fishing, or gathering plants.
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasibly yield from a parcel of land.
Intertillage Tillage between rows of crops of plants.
Livestock Ranching Commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area. Practiced is semi-arid or arid land, where vegetation is too sparse or the soil to too poor to support crops.
Market Gardening The small scale production of fruits, vegetables, and flowers as cash crops sold directly to local consumers.
Mediterranean Agriculture Farming in the land surrounding the Mediterranean Sea (Southern Europe, North Africa, and Western Asia), also in lands with similar climates (California, central Chile, Southwestern South Africa, and Southwestern Australia).
Mineral Fuels Natural resources containing hydrocarbons, which are not derived from animal or plant sources.
Mining Extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the Earth, usually from an ore body, vein, or coal seam.
Planned Economy Economic system in which a single agency makes all decisions about the production and allocation of goods and services
Renewable Energy replaced continually within a human lifespan, has an essentially unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by people
Non-Renewable Energy formed so slowly that for practical purposes it cannot be renewed
Rural Settlement Sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities.
Dispersed Characterized by farmers living on individual farms isolated from neighbors rather than alongside other farmers in the area.
Nucleated a number of families live in close proximity to each other, with fields surrounding the collection of houses and farm buildings.
Building Material houses and buildings are typically built from materials that are abundant in the area.
Village Form linear- tightly packed, need land for farming cluster- may have began as a hamlet, then further developed round- keep animals inside, houses surrounding them walled- farm villages fortified for protection grid- easy to get around in, modern
Sauer, Carl O. defined cultural landscape, as an area fashioned from nature by a cultural group
Second Agricultural Revolution Precursor to Industrial Revolution in the 19th century, that allowed a shift in work force beyond subsistence farming to allow labor to work in factories
Specialization Third level of cities (behind World Cities, and Command and Control Centers), offer a narrow and highly specialized variety of services.
Staple Grains Maize, wheat, and rice are the most produced grains produced world wide, accounting for 87% of all grains and 43% of all food
Suitcase Farm Individuals who live in urban areas a great distance from their land and drive to the country to care for their crops and livestock
Survey Patterns long lots, metes and bounds, township-and-range
Long Lots (French) Houses erected on narrow lots perpendicular along a river, so that each original settler had equal river access.
Metes and Bounds (English) Uses physical features of the local geography, along with directions and distances, to define the boundaries of a particular piece of land.
Township-and-Range (U.S.A.) Survey’s used west of Ohio, after the purchase of the Louisiana Purchase.
Sustainable Yield Ecological yield that can be extracted without reducing the base of capital itself, the surplus required to maintain nature’s services at the same or increasing level over time
Third Agricultural Revolution ‘Green Revolution’ Rapid diffusion of new agricultural techniques between 1970’s and 1980’s, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers.
Mechanization Farmers need tractors, irrigation pumps, and other machinery to make the most effective use of the new miracle seeds.
Chemical Farming Increased use of fertilizers with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.
Food Manufacturing the Green Revolution has increased production to avoid widespread famine
‘Tragedy of the Commons’ social trap that involves a conflict over resources between interests and the common good.
Transhumance pastoral practice of seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pasture areas
Truck Farm Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English word meaning bartering or the exchange of commodities
Von Thunen, Johann Heinrich When choosing an enterprise, a commercial farmer compares the cost of the land vs the cost of transporting production to market. Specific crops were grown in varying rings around city
Created by: rbanana
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