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Chp. 8 Political Geo
|Case study 1 : what two countries is it about ? and what is the prob ?
|France and Germany , boundries
|what is a state ?
|what is sovereignty ?
|independence from control of it internal affairs
|what is a non soverign state
|where are there arguments about states ?
|korea, china,polar region
|who divied korea into N and S ?
|The US and SU
|why did korea divison become permant
|the two new sections established new gov su (North) - democratic peoples republic of korea US ( south) republic of korea
|who invaded who in korea ?
|North to the south
|what are the the states in korea trying to do ?
|is taiwan a sovergin state ?
|most states consider it to be except china and rose a civil war
|what gov is china and taiwan ?
|Taiwan became nationalist and us supported them China is communist
|What is the most populous state not in the united nation
|what are some states that claim Anarctica?
|argentina,australia,chile, france, new zealand, norway. the UK
|what does the anartic treaty say ?
|the frame work for managing anarctica and is allowed for scienftic research
|what are microstates ?
|states with very small land areas
|how was the earth divied inot ?
|city states empires etc
|where can the development of states be traced to ?
|fertile crescent making an arc between the persian gulf and mediterranean sea
|what was the first state that was then divied into city states
|Mesopotanian with wall boundraies
|when did political unity reached its height ?
|with the establishment of the Roman empire with 38 provinces and ruling europe N africa and middle east
|what happened after roman falls
|kings started ruiling estates
|what is a colony ?
|a territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state
|what do the sovereign states control in colonies ?
|millatary or internal affairs
|what is colonialism
|effort by one countary to establish settlements in a terriory to impose principles on the area
|what where the 3 reason for europe colonialism
|God,gold and glory promote christianity extract resources and have power
|what is imperialism and what is a example ?
|to control of a territory already occupied, africa and asia
|what did france colonialsm do ?
|make them all the same
|what did british coloniallsim do ?
|make them all diffrent
|How many colonies still exist ?
|43 puerto rico most populous and pitcarin least populous
|whats do states shape affect ?
|controls lenght of its boundaries with other states, communication and conflict with neighbros and a unique idenity and centriptal force
|What are the five basic shapes ?
|compact, elongated prorupted, perfortated and fragmented
|describe compact staes
|small and a circle captial in the middle good for small states easier to communicate like bolivia
|describe elongated states ?
|long narrow suffer from poor internal communication like chile
|describe proupted states ?
|a compact state with an extension used to provied a state with a resource or two seprate 2 countries like myanmar
|describe perforated states
|a state that completly surrounds another one in south africa alot like lesotho
|describe fragmented states ?
|includes several discontinous pices like us or malaysia
|what are the 2 kinds of fragmented stAtes
|by water or Indonesia or by interving states like angola
|what are landlocks states and where is most common ?
|surronded by other countries most common in africa
|Why are landlocked states more common in africa
|europe made railroads to connect the interior africa and old railroads created boundaries
|What are the steaps to make a boundary
|1.define the boundary with a treaty 2.draw it on a map 3.mark boundraies on the ground 4. determane how it will be mantained
|what are the two types of boundary
|physical and cultural
|what are the disputes for physical boundaries ?
|the boundaries can change
|what is a definitional boundary disputes
|focus on legal boundary agreement
|what is locational boundary disputes
|center on where it is
|what are operational boundary disputes
|way of how the boundarie functions
|what are allocational boundary disputes
|describe desert boundaries
|cant divied 2 states hard to cross common in africa and asia
|describe mt boundaries
|difficult to cross and permanent happens in agregentina and chile with the andes mts crest cannot be detrmined
|describe water boundaries
|they can chnage most commonly used good protectio visable
|what are water boundaries in East africa
|lake alberta seprate the congo, lake victoria seprate kenya, zambia, Burundi lake mwera, lake malawi
|what is the law of sea
|standardized the territorial limits for states at 12 nautical miles and out 400 to fish
|what are the most common cultural boundaries ?
|geometric and ethnic
|What are geometric boundaries
|straight lines boundaries
|what countrires have geometric boundarie
|us and canada based on a treaty with britian and us and chad and lybia
|What are states seprated by reliigous boundaroes
|india ( into hindu and muslim) ireland north is for is protestand rest is catholic
|where are language boundaries found ? and why ?
|in europe like england,france,portugal and spain. after WW2 they made new boundaries seprating languages
|where were the similar slavic languages placed ? the czec and slovaks
|in yugoslavia and they were placed in czechoslavkia but cant live together
|what is the cyprus green line boundary ?
|to seprate the greeks and turkish on cyprus island ( more greeks and the wanted to rule )
|what is a frontier
|a zone where no state exerciss complete political control where a boundary is invisible but provied an area of separation
|where are frontier used
|in saudi arabia like kuwait seprated by a fronteir called the neutural zone or North and south Korea
|what are boundaries inside states used for
|drawn to seprate diffrent culture or provide advantage to political party
|what is a unitary state ?
|places most power in the central gov
|what is a federal state ?
|allocates strong power to units of local gov within the countary
|where does unitary state work best ?
|in nation states with few internal cultural diffrences require lots off cuminication like europe
|what is frances gov ?
|unitary with 96 deparmetns 1 powerful prefet and 36,686 communes but has granted legal powers to only deparments and communes
|why did poland switch to fedral and what system did they choose
|because the national gov wasnt communist anymore and the 3 tier system with provinces, counties,and municipalities
|what is electoral geography
|boundaries seprating legislative districts made every 10 years by politicans
|why are they redrawn ( electoral boundaries )
|to improve chances of its supporters
|what is gerrymandering
|process of redrawing legislative boundaries to benifit partys made by elbride gerry illegal
|what are the 3 forms of gerrymandaring
|wasted,excess,and stacked vote
|wasted vote is
|spreads opposition supporters across many districs but in mo=inority (try winning)
|excess vote is ?
|concentrates opposition supportes in few districts (still will win)
|what is stacked vote
|links distant areas of like minded voters through oddl shaped boundaries ( more seprated equally )
|why were global and regional orginazations made
|to prevent 3rd world war and to prevent countries from foregin attacks
|what is the largest to supranational
|when was the UN made and why
|at the end or WW1 with 49 states and made to prevent other wars
|what did the UN replace
|replaced the league of nations another orginanization made by presdient willson but usa didnt join
|what are UN members allowed to do
|to vote to establish a peace keeping force or millitary
|what are the 5 permamnet members of the security concil
|china france russia uk usa
|the world dividing into milltary alliances resulted in ?
|in two superpowers the Us and SU
|when were the superpowers made
|during the cold war because of power
|what were the superpowers before
|austria france germany italy japan russia uk and us
|where did the SU send armies to ?
|to hungary czechoslovakia
|where did US send armies ?
|Dominican republic, grenada and Panama so the world remained allies
|After WW2 most states joined what millitary groups
|NATO ( us and SU ) or Warsaw pact ( communist)
|hat were the 2 millitary groups made for
|to mantain a bipolar balance in Europe
|what was NATO objective
|to prevent SU from overruning Germany
|what was warsaws objective
|to provied SU with a discoragment to have a 3rd german invasion
|What is the African Union
|made in 2002 to replace the african unity and promot economic
|what was the african unity
|it was made to seek end to colonialism
|what were the diffrences in global power after there were more than 2 superpowers
|1. the most important elements of state power are ecnomic than millitary ike china,germany,and japan 2.the leading superpowersin not a single state but an economic union
|what 3 states started the European Union ans what was it used for
|Belgium netherlands and luxemborg and to heal westearn europe from WW2
|what 3 countries are trying to join the EU
|croatia turkey and macedonia
|what was the main task of the european union
|to promote development within member states removed most barriers of free trade and balance power
|what is terrorism
|is a systematic use of violence by a group in order to intimidate a population or gov into granting demands
|what is the probelem with terrorism and political violence
|hard to distinguish
|who made al qaeda
|osama bin ladan in 1990 to unite jihad fighters from afganistan and middle east
|story on bin laden
|went to afganistan to go against soviet army he then went to saudi arabia but wasnt allowed then to sudan but not allowed then back to afghanistan and he issued a decleration of war against the USA
|how many are involved in al qaeda
|how have air photos helped
|pinpoiting targets diplomatic format deployment of opposite armies
|what are the 3 types of devolution
|ethnocutural, economic and spatial
|a state define themseleves diffrently culture wise like czechoslovakia
|combination of resources like catalonia with spain
|Occur on borders like hawii