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Nissing Nutrition T2

Nutrition Test 2 Chapter 4, 5, 6

Good luck! If you find any errors, please email me at totallyjen@gmail.com and I'll fix it. Which chapters is the test over? (Now click this card for the answer) Ch. 4, 5, 6. Click "correct", you already knew that!
What food sources provide cholesterol? Animal products and by-products (LIVER, eggs, milk, meat)
Function of phospholipids that improves food quality Emulsify
True or false? Calorie content of reduced fat foods is much less, since there's less fat in it. False. often sugars are added to improve the flavor, so you'll still get your calories
Fat substitute that is not digested so it caused problems with digestion and problems with fat-soluble vitamins Olestra or Olean
Name two things that can break down the Carbon-to-Carbon bonds in lipids UV light, oxygen
When the word "lipid" is used, what is that referring to? Anything that is composed of fatty acids: fats, oils, waxes, monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, sterols (like cholesterol), steroids (some hormones), etc.
Name one of the purposes of hydrogenating fatty acids. Solidify oil to make it like butter, like turning canola oil into crisco, or vegetable into margarine. Also increases shelf life to prevent rancidity.
Cis or Trans: which forms a "kink" in a fatty acid? Cis
Cis or Trans: which forms fluidity of movement? Cis
Cis or Trans: which is an unnatural bond in a fatty acid? Trans
What is the "ceiling" for the amount of trans fat a person should eat in a day? 2.5g (most people have 10+)
Name two food types that are high in trans fats. Deep fried food. Produced baked goods with high fat. Non dairy creamers. Margarine. Peanut butter.
Where are lipids first digested? A small amount is digested in the stomach by the action of lipase enzymes
What is the purpose of bile? it emulsifies fat, means it mixes it up, salts from bile physically break it up into smaller chunks.
Where does bile come from? it's made in the liver and stored in the galbladder
Where do most fats and oils get digested and absorbed? The small intestine
When fats and oils are absorbed into the small intestine, where do they go next? Small amino acid chains of 12 C or less: portal vein to bloodstream. More than 12: Lymphatic system
How are phospholipids digested in the small intestine? Pancreatic lipase (fat enzyme) break phospholipids down into glycerol and fatty acids, sometimes with "extra parts"
How does cholesterol get into the body? it's absorbed, as is, into the cell walls surrounding the small intestine
Are there water soluble fatty acids? Yes, the ones under 12 Carbons long are, that's why they're able to go into the portal bloodstream instead of the lymph system
How do lipids get from the small intestine and the liver to the body tissues? Lipoproteins serve as a vehicle for transport from small intestine and liver to body tissues.
Name the lipoprotein that transports fats and oils from the small intestine into the body's cells Chylomicron
Name the lipoprotein that transports fats and oils from the liver into the body's cells VLDL: Very Low Density Lipoprotein
Name the lipoprotein that transports cholesterol into cells LDL: Low Density Lipoprotein
Name the lipoprotein that contributes to excretion of cholesterol from cells and eventually from the body HDL: High Density Lipoprotein. Highly dense because it has protein (like muscle, which is denser than fat)
What's so great about HDL? It removes cholesterol from the bloodstream, may block oxidation of LDL, reduces risk of cardiovascular disease.
When an LDL has oxidized, how does it get out of our body? Scavenger cells eat it.
How can we reduce the oxidation of LDL's? Antioxidants (a type of phytochemical, which are founds in fruits and vegetables)
Omega 3 is an essential fatty acid also known as alpha-linolenic acid. Where is the FIRST double bond located? the 3rd bond from the Omega end of the fatty acid
Where can you get Omega-3 fatty acid in your diet? Freshwater fish, fish oil, walnuts, flax seeds, canola
Omega 6 is a PolyUnsaturated Fatty Acid also known as Linoleic Acid. Where is Omega 6 found? Vegetable oils (you need 4-6 tbsp/day)
What are DHA and EPA? Omega 3 fatty acids, a PUFA
What are some signs of essential fatty acid deficiency? Flaky itchy skin, Diarrhea, Infection, slowed growth and wound healing.
What are the functions of fatty acids? (why do we need fats and oils?) Energy storage, insulation, protection of organs, satiety, flavor, transport of fat soluble vitamins
What is the name for the buildup of cholesterol plaque in arteries? Atherosclerosis
What's the other name for Myocardial Infarction? Heart Attack
What increases the risk of a MI (Myocardial Infarction/Heart Attack) Smoking, age, low HDL (good cholesterol), obesity, family inactifity, female gender
Signs of an MI prolonged chest pain, sweating, jaw/neck/shoulder pain, weakness, irregular heartbeat
What elements are contained in protein? Nitrogen Carbon Hydrogen
What are proteins made out of? Amino Acids
How many amino acids are in the human body? 20
How many amino acids are essential (meaning your body can't make them and have to eat them) 9. The other 11 are non-essential, meaning your body makes them
What determines the function of a protein? The order of amino acids makes up its SHAPE, which determines its function
What can DENATURE, or mess up the structure, of a protein? Heat, pH (acid/alkaline), enzymes, agitation
What does stomach GASTRIN do? Release acid and pepsin. You start to release Gastrin when you think about or smell food - it's the thing that gets your stomach growlin
What does stomach PEPSIN do? Break down protein
What does CCK do? Tells the pancreas to release enzymes like Trypsin
How are proteins absorbed by the small intestine? Active Absorption
After absorption, where do proteins go? Portal vein transports to liver
How do you determine the amount of protein a person needs to consume in a day based on their weight? 0.8 gm per kg of healthy body weight
Protein deficiency with quick onset resulting in minor weight loss, withdrawal from environment, growth impairment, edema, and a fatty liver. Kwashiokor, meaning "what your first kid gets when the new kid is born"
Protein deficiency with gradual onset, severe growth impairment, and wasting of muscle and body fat Marasmus
Name three monosaccharides in your body Galactose, fructose, glucose
Major sources of fructose include: Fruits and high fructose corn syrup
After absorption, the liver converts galactose into... Glucose
A disaccharide is formed by the chemical bonding of... Two monosaccharides (like glucose and fructose making sucrose)
The process that plants use to make glucose from carbon dioxide and water in the presences of the sun’s heat and light is called.... photosynthesis
The major monosaccharide in the body is Glucose
Glucose is also known as Dextrose (Or blood sugar, like in D5, an IV fluid common in the hospital)
The term “simple carbohydrate” refers to ... Monosaccharides and disaccharides. These are just one or two sugar molecules bound together.
The term "complex carbohydrate" refers to... Polysaccharides, like fiber and starch.
Of the following, which is a major source of sucrose? Alcohol Fruits Grains Sugar Cane Sugar cane. Sucrose is sugar, like table sugar. Fructose is the sugar in fruits. Dextrose/glucose and glycogen are the carbs in our bodies. Starch and fiber are carbs in many plants. Galactose and Lactose are in milk.
How does cooking food assist with carbohydrate digestion? It softens tough skin
What enzyme is responsible for carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine? Pancreatic Amylase (AMY- refers to a starch component, like amylose and amylopectin. LASE means break down. So amy (starch) lase (breakdown)
What is the fate of disaccharides not digested in the small intestine? They pass into the colon and are fermented by bacteria. Disaccharides, like sucrose, are 2-unit sugars, so the body can still work on them. Polysaccharides are larger, so they won't be absorbed by the large intestine but will be poo'd out.
When starches are digested, they turn into... Maltose then glucose.
Glucose is absorbed via _____ absorption Active. The cells on the lumen of the small intestine essentially "eat" the sugar, and they have to use energy to grab it.
Lactose Intolerance is caused by Lactase deficiency. Lactaid, Dairy Aid, and other lactose intolerance pills just give you the lactase so you can break down lactose. Again, ASE means break down. Lactose intolerance is the inabilty to break down lactose.
The major symptoms of lactose intolerance are Gas, abdominal pain and distention
Which Organ will first receive sugars after they are absorbed into the blood? The liver. Remember the portal system, which carries dissolved substances from the intestines to the liver, then the liver releases them into circulation.
Which hormone corrects a hyperglycemic state? Insulin. Hyperglycemic means over-sugared, meaning too much sugar in the blood. Insulin gets the sugar from the blood into the cells.
Which hormone corrects a hypoglycemic state? Glucagon. It causes the liver to release more glucose into the bloodstream.
When insulin is released, it causes Muscle and fat cells to increase glucose uptake. Think of insulin as the hot chick that gets the ugly guy (glucose) into the the club (cells of the body)
Which hormone is released during stressful times to increase bloodsugar levels, making more energy available for use? Epinephrine
The glycemic load takes into account these two things: Glycemic index of food, and the carbohydrate consumed.
For which organ is glucose most critical as energy source? The brain.
If you don't eat enough carbs, what happens? Proteins in the muscles, heart, and other organs will break down.
What percent of your caloric intake should be carbs? 45-65% (so like half)
The disaccharide Sucrose is glucose and... fructose. Sucrose is in table sugar
The disaccharide Maltose is glucose and... glucose. Starches break down into smaller and smaller pieces, but the start out long strands of glucose. When they break down to 2's (disaccharides), they're called maltose.
The disaccharide Lactose is glucose and... glactose. It's found in milk.
When a polysaccharide is made up of sugars that link up in a straight starch chains, that's called... AMYlose
When a polysaccharide is made up of sugars that link up in branched starches, it's called... AMYlopectin
When a polysaccharide is a soluble fiber, it's called pectin. People buy pectin to put it in foods we want to gell up, like jellies. It comes mostly from fruits anyway.
When polysaccharides link up in a way that our enzymes can't attach to them to break them up, like cellulose, they are called... insoluble fibers, or non-fermentable (if they were fermentable, bacteria in our colon would break them down)
The polysaccharide made by the liver that causes a jelly-like substance to form around foods as they cool glycogen (also called "animal starch)
Where does carbohydrate breakdown begin? in the mouth, starch (amylose, amylopectin) are broken down into maltose
How much fiber should a person eat? 25g for women, 38 for men.
How is rancidity of polyunsaturated fats prevented by manufacturers? Adding antioxidants like fat-soluble vitamin E, synthetic antioxidants BHA and BHT, or tightly sealing packages
What are the "building blocks" of protein? Amino acids
Describe the "all or none" concept of amino acids They work together in specific groups, and if one amino is missing from its group, then that whole group is unable to function. The missing element is called a "limiting amino acid"
Describe phelylketonuria (PKU) People with PKU can't metabolize phenylalanine, which our body would usually turn into tyrostine. If ingested, it will build up and be toxic causing retardation.
In what way are essential elements related to PKU? Since they can't have phenylalanine, which the body would have turned into tyrostine, they need to ingest tyrostine. It's now essential.
A single carb is a monosaccharide. A couple are dipeptides. Many are polypeptides. What are the monomers and polymers of proteins? Amino Acids, dipeptides, polypeptides
What causes sickle cell disease? Amino acids out of order in a protein, changing hemoglobin structure and collapsing blood cells into a crescent shape.
Which has more essential amino acids, plant or animal protein? Animal! all 9 are in animal tissue. That's why all animal proteins (except gelatin) are HIGH QUALITY, or COMPLETE, proteins.
Why must vegetarians consume a wide variety of plant proteins? All plant proteins except soy lack adequate amounts of one or more essential amino acids
What's the name of the major stomach enzyme that digests proteins? Pepsin, which is controlled by the hormone gastrin.
Which stomach enzyme splits proteins? Trypsin from the pancreas, which is controlled by the hormone CCK from the small intestine
Are proteins water or fat soluble? Water, so they go in the bloodstream instead of the lymph system
Name a couple functions of protein in the body Producing vital structures, maintaining fluid balance (holding water in bloodstream), Acid-base buffer, hormones, enzymes, immune function, forming glucose, forming DNA
When might you see a positive protein balance? Intake exceeds loss, like growth
When might you see a negative protein balance? Loss exceeds intake, like in acute illness
Which of these energy sources does not actually provide energy, but moves food through your digestive tract? Dietary fiber
What types of food have fiber? fruits, vegetables, grains
Which type of diabetes is the most common? Type 2, aka non-insulin-dependent, aka insulin-resistant
Name a few components of metabolic syndrome. diabetes, high BP, low HDL, abdominal obesity
Essential fatty acids that prevent too much blood clotting (or decrease blood clotting)... Omega 2
Why do we need cholesterol? We need it to build cell membranes and hormones. We don't have to eat it - our bodies can make it.
Where are saturated fatty acids? Animal fat, palm oil, palm kernel oil, coconut oil.
What is the food-fat that makes us fat? Triglycerides. They have 3 fatty acid chains (that's where the 3 comes from) attached to a glycerol. The 3 chains may be saturated, unsaturated, trans, or a mixture.
Where are the instructions for making proteins in the body? DNA and RNA
Proteins are made up of amino acids. If an essential amino acid is not available, what happens? The cell stops making the protein.
Proteins are made up of amino acids. If a non essential amino acid is not available, what happens? The cell makes the amino acid, then makes the protein
What makes amino acids different from eachother? The side chain, or "R group". All amino acids have a Carbon with 4 bond (hands). One hand holds the Amino, one holds the Acid, one holds a Hydrogen, and the 4th holds a something else, that's the side chain.
Process by which plants create sugar and oxygen Photosynthesys
Can starches be digested by the human GI tract? yes. Undigestible carbs are called fiber.
What is meant by "simple sugar" Mono- and disaccharides.
When food labels list "other Carbohydrates", what are they refering to? Starch
Where do people store their glycogen? In the liver and muscles
Where are mucilages found? Seaweed
Where is pectin found? Plant cell walls
Where are lignins found? multiringed alcohol
What's the other word for viscous fiber? Soluble. Includes pectins, gums, mucilages, some hemicelluloses.
What's the other word for nonfermentable fiber? Insoluble, includes Lignin(noncarb), Cellulose, some hemicellulose
name 2 nutritive sweetners that are also sugar alcohols Sorbitol (3Kcal/g), xylitol
Created by: jenissing