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Chapter 8

aerophagia The swallowing of air, whether deliberately to stimulate belching, accidentally, or as an involuntary habit.
amebic dysentery inflammation of the intestines caused by Endamoeba histolytica; usually acquired by ingesting food or water contaminated with feces; characterized by severe diarrhea
anastomosis A connection made surgically between adjacent blood vessels or parts of the intestine, or the operation in which this is constructed.
anorexia nervosa a psychological disorder characterized by somatic delusions that you are too fat despite being emaciated.
antiemetic a drug that prevents or alleviates nausea and vomiting.
aphthous ulcers a blister on the mucous membranes of the lips or mouth or gastrointestinal tract
ascites The accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity, causing abdominal swelling.
bariatrics The branch of medicine that deals with the study and treatment of obesity.
borborygmus A rumbling or gurgling noise made by the movement of fluid and gas in the intestines.
botulism Food poisoning caused by botulinum growing on improperly sterilized canned meats and other preserved foods.
bulimia nervosa Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by excessive eating. People who have bulimia will eat an excessive amount of food in a single episode and almost immediately make themselves vomit or use laxatives or diuretics (water pills) to get rid o
cachexia Weakness and wasting of the body due to severe chronic illness.
cheilosis a disorder of the lips marked by scaling and fissures at the corners of the mouth; caused by a deficiency of riboflavin
cholangiography X-ray examination of the bile ducts, used to locate and identify an obstruction.
cholangitis inflammation of the bile ducts.
cholecystectomy Surgical removal of the gallbladder.
cholecystitis Inflammation of the gallbladder.
choledocholithotomy Surgery that involves the removal of one or more obstructive gallstones from the common bile duct.
cholelithiasis The formation of gallstones.
cholera An infectious and often fatal bacterial disease of the small intestine, typically contracted from infected water supplies and causing severe vomiting and diarrhea
cirrhosis 1.A chronic disease of the liver marked by degeneration of cells, inflammation, and fibrous thickening of tissue. It is typically a result of alcoholism or hepatitis
colonoscopy visual examination of the colon (with a colonoscope) from the cecum to the rectum; requires sedation
crohn's disease 1.A chronic inflammatory disease of the intestines, esp. the colon and ileum, associated with ulcers and fistulae
diverticulitis Inflammation of a diverticulum, esp. in the colon, causing pain and disturbance of bowel function
diverticulosis A condition in which diverticula are present in the intestine without signs of inflammation
dyspepsia Indigestion
dysphagia Difficulty or discomfort in swallowing, as a symptom of disease
emesis The action or process of vomiting
enteritis Inflammation of the intestine, esp. the small intestine, usually accompanied by diarrhea
eructation A belch
esophageal varices esophageal varices are extremely dilated sub-mucosal veins in the lower esophagus. They are most often a consequence of portal hypertension, commonly due to cirrhosis; patients with esophageal varices have a strong tendency to develop bleeding.
esophagogastroduodenoscopy is an examination of the lining of the esophagus, stomach, and upper duodenum with a small
gastroduodenostomy Gastroduodenostomy is a surgical procedure where the doctor creates a new connection between the stomach and the duodenum. This procedure may be performed in cases of stomach cancer or in the case of a malfunctioning pyloric valve
gastroesophageal reflux disease a digestive disorder that is caused by gastric acid flowing from the stomach into the esophagus.
gastrostomy tube A gastrostomy tube is used to deliver liquified food to the digestive system when swallowing becomes dangerous or difficult.
hematemesis The vomiting of blood
hemoccult test A test that checks for hidden blood in the stool.
hepatitis A disease characterized by inflammation of the liver
herpes hernia Any of a group of viral diseases caused by herpes viruses, affecting the skin (often with blisters) or the nervous system
hyperemesis severe and excessive vomiting
ileus A painful obstruction of the ileum or other part of the intestine
inguinal hernia hernia in which a loop of intestine enters the inguinal canal; the most common type of hernia in males
jaundice 1.A medical condition with yellowing of the skin or whites of the eyes, arising from excess of the pigment bilirubin and typically caused by obstruction of the bile duct, by liver disease, or by excessive breakdown of red blood cells
melena abnormally dark tarry feces containing blood
morbid obesity A magnitude of obesity that qualifies someone for weight loss surgery. Individuals are considered morbidly obese when they are approximately 100 pounds or more over their ideal weight, or have a BMI of 40 or greater.
nasogastric intubation Nasogastric intubation is a medical process involving the insertion of a plastic tube (nasogastric tube, NG tube) through the nose, past the throat, and down into the stomach.
ulcerative colitis
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