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11. 6 Cardio Terms

Terms, diseases and conditions of the cardiovascular system

bradycardia and heart block (atrioventricular block) Failure of proper conduction of impulses from the SA node through the AV node to the atrioventricular bundle.
flutter Rapid but regular contractions, usually of the atria.
fibrilation Rapid, random, innefficient, and irregular contractions of the atia and ventricles (350 or more beats per minute).
congenital heart disease Abnormalities in the heart at birth.
coarctation of the aorta Narrowing (coarctation) of the aorta.
patent ductus arteriosus A duct (ductus arteriosus) between the aorta and the pulmonary artery, which normally closes soon after birth, remains open.
septal defects Small holes in the septa between the atria (atrial septal defects) or the ventricles (ventricular septal defects).
tetralogy of Fallot A congenital malformation of the heart involving four (tetra-) distinct defects.
congestive heart failure (CHF) The heart is unable to pump its required amount of blood (more blood enters the heart from veins than leaves through the arteries).
coronary artery disease (CAD) Disease of the arteries surrounding the heart.
endocarditis Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart caused by bacteria (bacterial endocarditis).
hypertensive heart disease High blood pressure affecting the heart.
mitral valve prolapse Improper closure of the mitral valve.
murmur An extra heart sound, heard between normal beats.
pericarditis Inflammation of the membrane (pericardium) surrounding the heart.
rheumatic heart disease Heart disease caused by rheumatic fever.
aneurysm Local widening of an arteriole wall.
deep vein thrombosis A blood clot forms in a large vein, usually in a lower limb.
hypertension High blood pressure.
peripheral vascular disease Blockage of blood vessels outside the heart.
Raynaud disease Recurrent episodes of pallor and cyanosis primarily in fingers and toes.
varicose veins Abnormally swollen and twisted veins, usually occuring in the legs.
BNP test Measurement of BNP (brain natriuretic peptide)in blood.
lipid tests Measurement of cholesterol and triglycerides (fats) in a blood sample.
lipoprotein electrophoresis Lipoprpteins (combinations of fat and protein) are physically seperated in a blood sample.
serum enzyme tests Chemicals measured in the blood as evidence of a heart attack.
angiography X-ray imaging of blood vessels after injection of contrast material
computerized tomography angiography Three dimensional x-ray images of the heart and coronary arteries using computed tomography.
digital subtraction angiography Video equipment and a computer pfroduce x-ray images of blood vessels.
electron beam computed tomography Electron beams and CT identify calcium and deposits in and around coronary arteries to diagnose early CAD.
doppler ultrasound studies Sound waves measure movement of blood flow.
echocaardiography Echoes generated by high-frequency sound waves produce images of the heart.
positron emission tomography Images show blood flow and myocardial function following uptake of radioactive substances.
technetium Tc 99m sestamibi scan Technetium Tc99m sestamibi injected intravenously is taken up in cardiac tissue, where it is detected by scanning.
thallium 201 scan Concentration of a radioactive substance is measured in the myocardium.
cardiac MRI Images of the heart are produced with magnetic waves.
cardiac catheterization A thin, flexible tube is guided into the heart via a vein or artery.
electrocardiography (ECG) Recording of the electricity flowing through the heart.
Holter monitoring An ECG device is worn during a 24-hour period to detect. Cardiac arrhythmias.
stress test Exercise tolerance test (ETT) determines the heart's response to physical exertion.
cardio diversion (defibrillation) Very brief discharges of electricity, applied across the chest to stop arrhythmias.
coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) Arteries and veins are anastomed to coronary arteries to detour around blockages.
endartectomy Surgical removal of plaque from the inner layer of an artery.
extracorporeal circulation A heart-lung machine diverts blood from the heart and lungs while the heart in repaired.
heart transplantation A donor heart is transferred to a recipient.
percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) A balloon-tipped catheter is inserted into a coronary artery to open the artery; stents are put in place.
thrombolytic therapy Drugs to dissolve clots are injected into the bloodstream of patients with coronary thrombosis.
Created by: vikingmedterm