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Endocrine Terms

Terminology of the Endocrine System

TermDefinition
Hyperthyroidism Over activity of the thyroid gland; thyrotoxicosis
Hypothyroidism Under activity of the. Thyroid gland
Thyroid carcinoma Cancer of the thyroid gland
Hyperparathyroidism Excessive production of parathormone
Hypoparathyroidism Deficient production of parathyroid hormone
Adrenal virilism Excessive production of adrenal androgens
Cushing syndrome Group of symptoms produced by excess cortisol from the adrenal cortex
Addison disease Hypofunctioning of the adrenal cortex
Pheochromocytoma Benign tumor of the adrenal medulla (cancer cells stain a dark or dusky [phe/o] color [chrom/o]
Hyperinsulinism Excess secretion of insulin causing hypoglycemia
Diabetes mellitus Lack of insulin secretion or resistance of insulin in promoting sugar, starch, and fat metabolism in cells
Acromegaly Enlargement of the extremities caused by hypersecretion of the anterior pituitary after puberty
Gigantism Hypersecretion of growth hormone from anterior lobe of the pituitary gland before puberty, leading to abnormal overgrowth of body tissues
Dwarfism Congenital hyposecretion of growth hormone; hypopituitary dwarfism
Panhypopituitarism All pituitary hormones are deficient
Syndrome of inappropriate ADH Excessive secretion of antidiuretic hormone
Diabetes insipudus Insufficient secretion of antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin)
Fasting blood sugar Measures circulating glucose level in a patient who has fasted at least 4 hours
Serum and urine tests Measurement of hormone, electrolytes, glucose, and othe substances in serum (blood) and urine as indicators of endocrine function
Thyroid function tests Measurement of T3, T4, and TSH in the bloodstream
Exopthalmometry Measurement of eyeball protrusions with an exopthalmometer
Computed tomography scan X-ray imaging of endocrine glands in cross section, to asses size and infiltration by tumor
Magnetic resonance imaging Magnetic and radiofrequency pulses produce images of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland to locate abnormalities
Radioactive iodine uptake scan Radioactive iodine is administered orally, and its uptake by the thyroid gland is imaged to asses thyroid functions
Thyroid scan A scanner detects radioactivity and visualizes the thyroid gland after intravenous administration of a radioactive compound
Ultrasound examination Sound waves show images of endocrine organs
Created by: vikingmedterm
 

 



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