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Unit 4 Roseanna

AP Human Geography 4B

Annexation Incorporation of a territory into another geo-political entity
Antarctica Southernmost continent in the world. It has no permanent residents and doesn't belong to any country.
Apartheid Afrikaans for apartness, it was the segregation of blacks in South Africa from 1948 to 1994. It was created to keep the white minority in power and allow them to have almost total control over the black majority.
Balkanization The political term used when referring to the fragmentation or breakup of a region or country into smaller regions or countries.
Border Landscape There are two types, exclusionary and inclusionary. Exclusionary is meant to keep people out, such as the border between the U.S. and Mexico. Inclusionary is meant to facilitate trade and movement, such as the U.S.-Canada border.
Boundary disputes Conflicts over the location, size, and extent of borders between nations.
Boundary origin Boundaries often originated from old tribal lands and lands won in war. They were meant to establish claims to land and were often smaller historically.
Boundary process The process of creating boundaries.
Boundary type Many boundaries are natural boundaries, formed by rivers, mountains, etc. There are also political boundaries, formed through war and compromise in treaties & agreements. There are also cultural boundaries that used to belong to a cultural homeland.
Buffer state A country lying between two more powerful countries that are hostile to each other
Capital Principle city in a state or country. The best place to locate a capital is at the center of a country, so it is a somewhat equal distance from all parts of the country.
Centrifugal Religious, political, economic, conflict, etc. that causes disunity in a state
Centripetal An attitude that unifies people and enhances support for the state.
City-state A region controlled by a city and that has sovereignty
Colonialism The attempt by a country to establish settlements and impose political and economic control and principles.
Confederation association of sovereign states by a treaty or agreement. It deals with issues such as defense, foreign affairs, trade, and a common currency.
Conference of Berlin Regulated trade and colonization in Africa. It formalized the scramble to gain colonies in Africa and set up boundaries for each country’s colonies.
Core/periphery Core countries have high levels of development, a capacity at innovation and a convergence of trade flows. Periphery countries usually have less development and are poorer countries.
Decolonization Decolonization is the movement of American/European colonies gaining independence.
Devolution Devolution is the both the decentralization of a government from a unitary to a federal system or a fracturing of a government like Balkanization.
Domino theory Domino theory is the idea that if one land in a region came under the influence of Communists, then more would follow in a domino effect.
Exclusive Economic Zone An Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is a sea zone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources
Electoral regions An Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is a sea zone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources
Enclave/exclave Enclave - a country/part of a country mostly surrounded by the territory of another country or wholly lying within the boundaries of another country. Exclave - a country which is geographically separated from the main part by surrounding alien territor
Ethnic conflict An ethnic conflict is a war between ethnic groups often as a result of ethnic nationalism or fight over natural resources
European Union The European Union (EU) is a supranational and intergovernmental union of 27 democratic member states of Europe. The EU's activities cover most areas of public policy, from economic policy to foreign affairs, defense, agriculture and trade.
Federal Federalism is a political philosophy in which a group or body of members are bound together with a governing representative head
Forward capital A forward capital is a symbolically relocated capital city usually because of either economic or strategic reasons
Frontier A frontier is a zone where no state exercises complete political control
Geopolitics Geopolitics is the study that analyzes geography, history and social science with reference to international politics
Gerrymander Gerrymandering is the process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the political party in power
Global commons Global commons is that which no one person or state may own or control and which is central to life
Heartland/rimland Heartland is the central region of a country or continent; especially a region that is important to a country or to a culture. Rimland is the maritime fringe of a country or continent.
Immigrant state An immigrant state is a type of receiving state which is the target of many immigrants.
Created by: rbanana
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