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CH Unit IV

Dictamen The “Art of Composition” taught at Bologna, which included rules for drawing up briefs and other legal documents. This training attracted many students and soon developed into another intense program specializing in grammar and rhetoric.
Double Truth theory Compared the value of theological tenets against philosophical truths. According to the Muslim philosopher Averroes.
Gothic Style of Medieval building that flourished from 1200-1500. By using pointed arches, ribbed vaulting and flying buttresses, this style created an airy and well-lit space.
“Hearing a book” Method of teaching in a university. A teacher would read the text of a book along with his predecessors’ comments on the text before adding his own commentary to the lecture.
Mendicant Friars From the Latin word mendicare, meaning “to beg,” this new type of religious order was not bound to a place or community and subsisted entirely on alms. The Franciscans and Dominicans are the largest orders of Mendicant friars.
Platonic Forms Philosophical construct developed by the fifth century philosopher Plato that held that all things that exist emanate from the primal unity of the unseen idea, at the very core of which is the Form of the Good.
Quadrivium Latin for “four ways.” More advanced program in the Medieval liberal arts program, it included the study of arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music.
Scholasticism The system of philosophical and theological inquiry first developed in the Medieval schools of Christian Europe, creating its own technical language and methodology.
Stigmata The phenomenon in which a person bears all or some of the wounds of Christ in his or her body.
Studium Generale Unified program of study offered by Medieval universities which included theology, law, medicine, and the arts.
Trivium Latin for “three ways,” this was one of two sections into which the arts were divided in Medieval universities. It referred to the three primary branched of Medieval education
Troubadour Travelling minstrel lyricists who sang of love and romance, assisting in the development of European vernacular literature.
Universitas A type of corporation that protected the educational and administrative needs of masters and students in school of the mid-eleventh century.
Boni Viri Latin meaning “good men,” these groups of thirty or more highly respected and independent men, both laymen and priests, were summoned during the Inquisition to give verdict on cases and decide punishment.
Concilium Premanens standing council of the sworn judges who assisted the judge during an inquisition.
Crusade From the Latin word crux (cross) it refers to the wars of a religious character, or specifically to a series of eight defensive military expeditions between 1096 to 1270 undertaken by Christians to liberate the Holy Land and stop the expansion of Islam.
Drang Nach Osten (Urge to the East) German expansion into the East.
Immuration Imprisonment for those who recanted their heresy because of fear of the punishment of death.
Indulgence Given to someone who undertakes a specific task. It grants remission of temporal punishment for sins already forgiven through the Sacrament of Penance.
Inquisitor Special judges appointed by the pope during the Inquisition who examined and judged the doctrinal opinions and moral conduct of suspicious individuals.
Military Order Arising out of the necessity of defending the Holy Places in Palestine as well as the pilgrims who traveled there, these orders combined both military and religious life, emphasizing dedication, discipline and monastic organization.
Reconquista The fifteenth-century reconquering of Spain by the Christians after 900 years of Muslim and Jewish control.
Term of Grace The procedure for inquisition began with this month long period which allowed for the inhabitants of a heresy-ridden district to appear before the inquisitor, confess their sins, and perform penance.
Age of St. Bernard Refers to the middle of the twelfth century during which St. Bernard of Clairvaux exhibited enormous influence through his counseling of rulers, bishops, and popes.
Carolingian The French dynasty of rulers descended from Charlemange.
Cistercians this order was founded by the Cluniac monk St. Robert of Molesme in 1098. They adopted the Benedictine rule and placed a special emphasis on austerities, farming, simplicity, and strictness in daily life.
Cluny City in east-central France which gave birth to monastic reform in 910. The first abbey began with twelve monks committed to renewing the rule of St. Benedict.
Dictatus Papae Decree given by Pope St. Gregory VII asserting that the pope possesses specific powers given by God that rested on him alone.
Feudalism System that came to organize the politics, economy, and social life of Medieval Europe after the split of the Carolingian empire.
Lay Investiture The appointment of bishops and abbots by secular rulers, often in exchange for temporal protection.
Nepotism From the Italian nepote, “nephew” and Latin nepos, “Grandson.” The appointment of family members to important positions of authority.
Serf The majority of people within feudalism. They barely enjoyed any freedom since they were completely tied to the land and lord they were serving.
Simony The selling of ecclesiastical offices, pardons, or emoluments by either secular or spiritual leaders.
Treaty of Verdun Signed in 843, the treaty divided the Carolingian empire into three sections, which led to eventual destruction of Charlemagne’s empire.
Vassal In feudalism, those under the rule of the lord who paid him in labor or services.
Vicar of Christ Title issued by Pope Innocent III rather than the earlier title, Vicar of St. Peter. “Vicar of Christ” emphasized Innocent III’s understanding of the pope as a representative of Christ himself.
when did charlemagne die? 814
what did charlemagne's death mark? end of balance of power between the papal states and the western franks
who was charlemagne's heir? louis the pious
what unwise decision did louis the pious make about the empire? split the empire into three, for his three sons
what treaty resulted from fighting between louis the pious' sons? treaty of verdun
what did the treaty of verdun do to the carolingian empire? divided the empire into three: western, middle, and eastern kingdom
what impact did the treaty of verdun have on carolingian unity? unity was destroyed and the lands were overrun
why did the collapse of the carolingians disrupt the balance of power in western europe? empire broke into approximately 50 duchies which were not strong enough to provide protection for everyone; feudalism was born
what new invaders were threatening christian europe? saracens (south) vikings (north) slavs and magyars (east)
what three factions (groups) fought for power in europe? emperors, popes, roman nobility
who was the first pope to be assassinated? pope john VIII
what pope was eighteen when he was elected pope? john XII
what led to the rise of feudalism in the west? when the carolingian empire collapsed, it was split into 50 duchies that could not individually support themselves; feudalism came along
how were people organized in feudalism? king > duke > lord > vassal > serf
what responsibilities were given to landlords under feudalism? military protection against foreign and domestic foes
what was the first abbot of cluny? st. berno
what rule did cluny monks follow? rule of st. benedict
what parts of the rule did cluny monks closely follow? individual spiritual life of the monk
what major difference was there between cluny monasteries and others of the time? had only one abbot and had more time for spiritual reflection
how many monasteries followed the rule of cluny by 1100? 1,450
where else did cluny monasteries find success? more and more bishops and secular rulers supported their reforms
why was cluny granted privilegium? answered directly to the papacy so that they were free from feudalism
how did privilegium free cluny, both spiritually and temporally? did not have to participate in nepotism and simony, along with feudalism
what marked the official end of the carolingian line? 911, when Conrad I was chosen as king
who was otto I? saxon ruler who formed the Holy Roman Empire and first in the Ottonian line
What did otto I form? holy roman empire and the ottonian line
what role did the ottonian line fill? role the carolingian line had provided in the previous centuries
what did otto III and pope sylvester II hope to accomplish? build a new empire based in rome that would incorporate all of europe
what was otto III and pope sylvester II's ultimate motivation/goal? secure a lasting peace to assist the church on her spiritual mission
how did the cooperation that existed between otto III and pope sylvester II cause "serious difficulties" for the church? accentuated the problem of temporal interference with ecclesiastical affairs, which gave rise to the lay investiture controversy
who was hugh capet? king in 987 after the carolingian line
what was the significance of hugh capet's family? capetian line would rule france for many centuries
who was william the conquerer? only son of robert the magnificent (duke of normandy); he succeeded the throne of england by conquest in winning the battle of hastings in oct. of 1066, now known as the norman conquest
by what other name is william the conquerer known? william the bastard
what important position did william the conquerer achieve through invasion? throne of england
what was the decisive battle of william the conquerer's invasion? battle of hastings
what is the bayeux tapestry? tapestry commemorating the victory at the battle of hastings
who was named archbishop of canterbury under william the conquerer? lanfrac
what were the characteristics of/questions involved in the lay investiture controversy? who should appoint bishops: secular or religious leaders?
how long had lay investiture been going on in the church? hundreds of years, since charlemagne
had lay investiture always been a bad thing? no, in some cases it helped the church
how did the lay investiture controversy reflect the relationship between church and state at the time? no clear distinction between church and state
why did reforming popes feel the need to retain control over appointment of bishops? to cut down on corruption
who was at the center of reforms in the 11th century? pope st. gregory VII
what was the dictatus papae? decree issued that stated the pope possessed specific powers bestowed by God and rested on him alone
who wrote the dictatus papae? pope st. gregory VII
what rules did the dictatus papae outline? 1. power to convene and ratify a council 2. define tenants of faith 3. appoint, transfer, and remove bishops 4. papacy has the right to depose temporal rulers
how did temporal powers react to the dictatus papae? were not happy because their subjects could repeal them
what else did pope st. gregory VII do in relation to law? put stiff penalties on simony
what title was pope st. gregory VII given? pope st. gregory the great
why did pope st. gregory VII and holy roman emperor henry IV come into conflict? henry IV appointed his own bishop of milan
what were the consequences for henry IV after he ignored the pope's order to stop appointing bishops? he was deposed and his subjects released form his rule
what was henry IV's motivation for attempting a reconciliation with the church? were his motives pure? to regain his office; no.
how did henry IV show his contrition to the pope? stood outside, dressed in sackcloths in the snow for three days, barefoot
what was gregory VIi's reaction to the apparently penitent emperor and why? refused to greet him because he doubted he was sincere
what role did hugh of cluny play in the henry iv vs. gregory VII situation? forced gregory VII to greet him because apparently all that ask for forgiveness should be given it
what was the concordat of worms? officially ended the lay investiture controversy
what did the concordat of worms seek to resolve? lay investiture
what were the two parts of the concordat of worms? 1. left spiritual investiture to the church and temporal to the state 2. emperor renounced all claims to invest in church men with symbols of spiritual authority and had to permit free election of bishops
who was henry II? most powerful of all medieval english monarchs
what did henry II want to accomplish in relation to the church in england? wanted to consolidate all powers in england and place all authority under the crown
who did henry ii choose to be archbishop of canterbury? st. thomas a becket
why did henry ii choose tomas a becket as archbishop of canterbury? good friend and had been his chancellor
why did henry ii's choice of archbishop of canterbury initially refuse the appointment? knew as archbishop he could not support him in governing, which would include increasing the power of the state over the ecclesiastical authority
why did the archbishop of canterbury finally agree to be so? persuaded by henry ii and henry of posa
what were the constitutions of clarendon? henry ii asserting his authority
what was attempted through the constitutions of clarendon? 1. gain control over episcopal sees and abbeys 2. control election of bishops and abbots 3. all clerics were to be tried in civil court
who opposed the constitutions of clarendon? thomas a becket and pope alexander III
under what circumstances did tomas a becket and henry ii's relationship end? thomas a becket returned to england to convince the king to not apply his programs and henry ii jokingly asked if anyone could rid him of this meddlesome priest; he was murdered by a couple knights at church
what were the implications of thmas becket's murder for henry and his proposed reforms of the church in england? 1. almost immediate devotion to thomas a becket 2. undoing of all henry ii's programs 3. henry ii spent the rest of his life a guilty man 4. henry ii gave up his goal of overtaking the church
who was frederic i, barbarosa? ablest and most powerful ruler of the holy roman empire
what did frederic i barbarosa believe about his vocation and god's gift to him? revive the roman empire and god had gifted him absolute power
what was the relationship between frederic I and pope adrian vi? pope adrian iv threatened to excommunicate him
how did frederic i react tot he pope's warnings and the requirements of the concordat of worms? he continued to appoint bishops and imprison papal legates sent to stop him
what was pope innocent iii's significance in the church? brought the church to the height of her power
what title did pope innocent iii take? vicar of christ (instead of vicar of peter)
what did the title vicar of christ indicate about the pope's role in the world? he was the mediator between god and the people
what was pope innocent iii's relationship with frederic ii? innocent iii was frederic's guardian after frederic i died
what did frederic ii promise to innocent iii? respect the sovereignty of the papal states and not try to unify germany and italy
how did frederic ii break his word to the pope? attempted to capture the papal states after innocent iii's death
what behavior led people to call frederic ii the "anti-christ"? because of his evil ways, agnosticism, and cruelty
why was frederic ii finally forced to bow to papal power? he was deposed and his nobles abandoned him; he repented
who were the cistercians? monastic reform movement
who founded the cistercians? st. robert of molesme
why were the cistercians referred to as the "white monks"? wore white habits, as opposed to black
what did the cistercians' white robes symbolize? poverty and simplicity
who were the carthusians? another monastic reform movement
who founded the carthusians? st. bruno
to what did the word crusade refer in the middle ages? series of 8 military expeditions christians took from 1096 to 1270
to what was the successful expansion of islam credited? military expedition and authentic religious conversion
what territories significant to christianity did muslims sieze? 1. palestine 2. egypt 3. asia minor 4. north africa
who had created borders between the islamic world and cristendom? how? charles martel by his defeat at the battle of tours
who were the seljuk turks? new muslim militant nation
what happened in 1071? turks beat the byzantine army and almost took constantinople
why was the turkish take over seen as a potential catastrophe for christian europe? 2/3 of the christian world had been taken over by muslims
to whom did eastern emperors look for assistance and why? the west, in the hopes they could stop the muslims so that they would not enter the west
with what event did the crusades begin? pope urban ii proclaimed an organized assault over the muslims
what pope presided over the commencement of the crusades? pope bl urban ii
which pope's sermons were instrumental in recruiting crusaders? pope bl urban ii
what were two objectives of the crusades? 1. fend off the muslim expansion into spain 2. free the holy land for safe pilgrimage and worship over sacred sites
what were the major motives for crusaders? religion- indulgences and a reward from god material- reduction of taxes, dissolving debt, protection of families
how were the crusades viewed by those who participated? acts of religious devotion
what were indulgences? given to grant remission of temporal punishment for sins already forgiven through penance
what role did indulgences play in the crusades? incentive to participate
how were indulgences earned? participation in a crusade, a long time of prayer, religious devotion, etc
what material incentives were offered for those who went on crusade? reduction of taxes , dissolving of debt, protecting crusaders' families
to what level of society did the crusades appeal to most? lower classes
who did the pope specifically address when he spoke and why? sinners, as a means of reconciliation with god
what uniquely characterized the first crusade compared to the rest? most successful, most organized, occurred without direct support from civil leaders
what kind of success did the first crusade have in the holy land? holy land was reconquered
how was crusader-held territory organized? included christians, muslims, and jews and all were allowed to keep their religion, although unity was more difficult
what man was given control of jerusalem after the first crusade? geoffrey of bouillon, then later his brother baldwin
which crusade is the most famous and why? third crusade because it provides the background for robin hood
what led to the third crusade? defeat of the christian kingdoms in the holy lands against the turks as a counter attack
why was the fourth crusade such a disaster? instead of protecting constantinople, they sacked it
what were the consequences for the men on the fourth crusade? excommunicated
what was the children's crusade? children set out to mount a crusade against the turks; before they even reached the holy land, most died of starvation/disease; when they finally got there, the rest were sold into slavery
when did christian forces finally lose control of jerusalem? 1291
describe st. francis of assisi in the crusades. asked for permission to travel to palestine to convert muslim leader sultan malik-al-kamil; upon arrival, he was captured and tortured; however, their appearance drew his interest and he agreed to meet them; they continued to meet and discuss religion
what lesson did st. francis of assisi give in his actions with malik-al-kamil? example on how christians and muslims can be peaceful
what achievements can be attributed to the crusades? 1. held back turkish expansion for 400 years 2. gave christians a greater awareness of their unity 3. contact with eastern culture 4. pilgrimages were easier 5. muslims entrusted the holy land to the franciscans
what impact did the crusades have on the development of military technology? largely a defensive war, so castles were built; also, there was an improvement in steam engines
how did the crusades impact exploration and missionary work? prompted a new curiosity for foreign culture and reports from asia led to a greater desire to evangelize
what is the official name for the knights templar? poor brothers of the temple of jerusalem
on what rule was the knights templar based? cistercian rule
according to the knights templar's rule, what did their uniforms look like? what were they supposed to do for the order? white monastic garment with a red cross; temper any bad habits
what was the reputation of the knights templar in battle and warfare? fierce; fearless and would never back down
describe the knights templar and money/banking. safeguarded western money; usury was illegal, so they charged for the space the money took up in their banks
what innovation in money/banking did the knights templar create? credit system and the using of a piece of paper instead of cash
after the crusades, the knights templar returned to europe. who felt threatened by them and why? king of france, philip the fair; wealthy
what steps did philip the fair take to end the templars? charged them with heresy and they became unpopular, their ranks diminishing
what happened on october 13, 1307? philip the fair suppressed the knights templar and seized their property
how does october 13, 1307 still have significance to us? friday the 13th is an unlucky day
who was jacques de molay? grand master of the knights templar
what claims did jacques de molay make about the french king and pope? said they would follow him to the grave before the year was out, which they did
what was the purpose of the knights templar? protect pilgrims to jerusalem
what was the official name for the knights hospitalers? brothers of the hospital of st. john of jerusalem
what happened to the knights hospitalers after the fall of jerusalem in 1290? went to the island of rhodes
what are the knights hospitalers now known as? knights of malta
what is the official name of the teutonic knights? brothers of the hospital of st. mary of jerusalem
after which military oder were the teutonic knights modeled after? knights hospitalers
where did the inquisition begin? 13th century, southern france
to what heresy was the inquisition a reaction to? albigensian
which pope began the inquisition? pope bl urban II
describe the heresy of albigensianism. it is like gnosticism- the soul is good and the material body evil; radical asceticism; spiritual and good god and an evil and material god
why is albigensianism dangerously contrary to the catholic faith? all things in the world are temporal and evil
what punishments were inflicted by the inquisition? 1. building/visitation of church 2. pilgrimage 3. offering chalice/candle 4. crusade
what were the harshest penalties of the inquisition? 1. fines 2. whipping 3. pillory 4. wearing of crosses 5. exclusion from communion 6. surrender to civil authorities
how were heretics treated in secular courts? much harsher, as three were burned and killed from heresy a year
what led to the establishment of the inquisition in spain? religious conditions- establishment of the papal institution with ferdinand and isabella
what were the motives behind the inquisition in spain? reconquista and spanish unification
when did the spanish inquisition formally begin? after the papal inquisition in around 1492
under whose reign was the spanish inquisition established? ferdinand and isabella
what was the role of the holy see in the spanish inquisition? sanctioned the establishment of the spanish inquisition and granted the grand inquisitor judicial authority in faith matters, then was independent
how is the spanish inquisition characterized when compared with the papal inquisition against albigensianism? significantly crueler; much has no justification whatsoever
what was the university of paris' significance for the northern european universities? students received a broad education
how did the university of bologna provide a template for southern european universities? became the center of legal studies
what academic discipline is the university of bologna known for? jurisprudence
what is the dictamen? rules for drawing up briefs and other legal documents
describe the unique origins of the university of salerno. formerly a benedictine monastery
what was studied at the university of salerno? medicine, philosophy, and arabic
who was constantino africano and what contributions did he make to the university of salerno? christian who studied arabic and philosophy in the east and brought it to the university and the west
what was the trivium? "three ways"; included latin grammar, rhetoric, and logic
what was the quadrivium? "four ways"; included arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music
upon completion of the trivium, what did the student receive? bachelor of arts
when did a student begin work on the quadrivium? after the trivium for about 5-6 years
what degree was awarded upon completion of the quadrivium? master of arts
what was involved in pursuing a doctorate? debated your professor and debated topics on posed questions
what impact did the reintroduction of aristotle to the west have on philosophical inquiry? compared the value of theological and religious truths; created scholasticism
how were the methods of scholasticism developed? come out fo the teaching techniques at universities
what contribution tot he development of scholasticism did anselm of laon make? first studied and analyzed the beliefs of the christian faith relating to logic and discursive reasoning
what title was anselm of laon given? father of scholasticism
what two requirements did peter lombard set forth for the scholastic method? what did they mean? 1. proposed questioning is the key to perceiving truth: did not grow out of an independent thought, but existing questions 2. differences can be resolved by determining the meaning of terms: by studying works and language, truth and clarity can be drawn
what was the summa theologica? scholastic contribution that set out understanding the most important tenaments of christianity, including the existence of god, divinity of christ, and christian morality
who wrote the summa theologica? st. thomas aquinas
why is the summa theologica still important today? showed aristotle's theology can be combined with christianity
until the reintroduction of the majority of aristotle's work into western europe, what philosophical tool had been used by the majority of christian thinkers to explain the faith? plato and plotinus (neo-platonism)
on what issues did plato and aristotle agree? were these differences important? aristotle said the world was infinite and the soul moral; yes, they contradicted christianity
what theory held by spanish thinker averroes would be the most problematic for christian theologians? double truth theory
what did the double truth theory state about the relationship between theology and philosophy? philosophical truth is superior to theology
why would the double truth theory be a problem for many christian thinkers? said that philosophy and theology can collide, but philosophical conclusions can come out on top and implied a materialistic view on the world
how did st. thomas aquinas answer averroes' assertions about theology and philosophy? theology is superior to philosophy because of the absolute veracity of divine revelation
what did st. thomas state the relationship between theology and philosophy was? philosophy is the servant to theology and theology guides and corrects philosophical truths
according to st. thomas, why is there never a real dichotomy between philosophy and theology? the truth is one and absolute
why was st. thomas' work with aristotle not immediately accepted by most christian scholars? various thinkers were unsure about his use of aristotle
who was blessed john duns scotus? franciscan who tried to find middle ground between st. thomas and neo-platonic christians
how did blessed john duns scotus try to find a medium between the thoughts of st. thomas and the neo-platonic christians of the augustinian school argued there were limits to reason and logic when understanding god and st. thomas was relying too much on aristotle's conception that intellectual ideas are strictly dependent on sensible experiment and data
what are the mendicant friars? a type of religious order that has a strict life of poverty
what characterizes the mendicant friars? take vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience and are forbidden to own property
what were the two original orders of mendicant friars? who founded them? franciscans- st. francis of assisi dominicans- st. dominic
what was the result of st. francis' trip to the Holy Land? how did it impact his order? became friends with the sultan and as a result he secured safe passageway for himself and his followers; still protect the Holy Land
how is st. bonaventure known in relation to the franciscan order? why? "second founder" because once the franciscans became large, they needed somewhere to stay; since they could not own property, he allowed donations which were given to the holy see, who would in turn provide them with housing
describe the provisions of st. bonaventure. provided a system in which they could have housing
how did st. bonaventure impact the franciscans? no temptations and they can travel from monastery to monastery and they began to prosper in numbers and vocation
what was one of the main reasons for the success of albigensianism in southern france? preferable to lax moral behavior by wayward clergy and extreme poverty, honoring the example of christ
which religious order was created to combat albigensianism? dominicans
briefly describe the style of the roman basilica. (structural and ascetic) heavy, thick walls, flat roof, small windows
what changes were taking place in the christian liturgy as the medieval period began? musical styles were blended, layered, and harmonized in complete unity
what did the church year become centered around? the idea of christ as the light coming into the world at christmas
what did gothic structures reflect? god's power and beauty
what were this new style's aesthetic and structural characteristics? more windows, large tower, flying buttresses, high ceilings with a pointed stone vault
what are flying buttresses? extra supports that arch towards the roof and are held together by columns and vaults
what did flying buttresses allow artists to do? huge stained glass windows, more elaborate walls, more creativity
what were the origins of vernacular literature in europe? folk stories handed down from generation to generation
what is one of the earliest examples of vernacular literature? beowulf
what are troubadour poets? traveling minstrels (medieval singers/musicians)
what do troubadours do? sang of love and romance
describe dante's divine comedy. what is it about? story of how dante guarded by his love beatrice, goes through hell to heaven to make sure that his love is safe; it draws together classical and christian elements to draw virtue and vice from the human complex
Created by: swimmingninja42



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