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Chapter 2 Terms

culture A society’s shared and socially transmitted ideas, values, and perceptions, which are used to make sense of experience and generate behavior and are reflected in that behavior.
enculturation The process by which a society’s culture is passed on from one generation to the next and individuals become members of their society
society An organized group or groups of interdependent people who generally share a common territory, language, and culture and who act together for collective survival and well-being.
subculture A distinctive set of ideas, values, and behavior patterns by which a group within a larger society operates, while still sharing common standards with that larger society.
ethnic group People who collectively and publicly identify themselves as a distinct group based on cultural features such as common origin, language, customs, and traditional beliefs.
ethnicity This term, rooted in the Greek word ethnikos (“nation”) and related to ethnos (“custom”), is the expression for the set of cultural ideas held by an ethnic group.
pluralistic society A society in which two or more ethnic groups or nationalities are politically organized into one territorial state but maintain their cultural differences.
symbol A sign, sound, emblem, or other thing that is arbitrarily linked to something else and represents it in a meaningful way.
cultural adaptation A complex of ideas, activities, and technologies that enables people to survive and even thrive in their environment.
social structure The rule-governed relationships—with all their rights and obligations—that hold members of a society together. This includes households, families, associations, and power relations, including politics.
infrastructure The economic foundation of a society, including its subsistence practices and the tools and other material equipment used to make a living.
superstructure A society’s shared sense of identity and worldview. The collective body of ideas, beliefs,& values by which members of a society make sense of the world—its shape, challenges,& opportunities-& understand their place in it.
cultural relativism The idea that one must suspend judgment of other people’s practices in order to understand them in their own cultural terms.
Created by: st0lenyoureyes