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medical anthro exam

medical anthro exam 1

culture learned behavior one acquires as a part of society, allows us to engage creatively with the world around us, is inherently symbolic
symbol something that stands for something else
holism a believe that mind, body, individuals and society are interconnected and can even define each other
importance of context makes all the difference in the world
construction of culture made through interpretation, things don't have a meaning, they are given a meaning
how is culture public it is constructed through social interactions
holism an atttempt to challenge common but problematic assumptions such as the dualism of idealism/materialism, reductionist logic and reasoning, determinisim
idealism view that human mind creates the essence of human nature, i think therefore i am
materialism the physical activite our bodies do make up the essence of human nature, reductionist reasoning: a single set of material factors explain human behavior, leans towards determinist reasoning: one single force causes many complex events
theories of knowledge: subjective linked to idealism, knowledge is constructed
theories of knowledge: objective linked to materialism, the natural world is not the same as human conciousness but the human mind can understand the world as an objective reality apart from the mind
ethnocentrism the belief that your way of living is the best
cultural relativism understanding a culture in its context, don't take it out of context
anthropological methods fieldwork: holistic, participant observation cultural translation (trying to make sense of what you understand), comparisons (concious/unconcious), elements of positivism
cultural perspective everything is influenced by culture
biocultural perspective most things are controlled by culture but somethings, like diseases, are universal
difference between a diseases and an illness disease: a biological malfunction in your body. Illness: how we culturally translate the diesase
power of culture in regards to disease culture transforms what we onsider a disease, if the symptoms are pervasive enough, its no longer considered a disease, just another part of society/culture
Among the Wape kinship rituals are often closely associated with ritualized healing ceremonies. Why is this? show the closeness and tight knit structure of the tribe
How does the example of shamanism among the Wape fit with Claude Levi-Struass’s analysis of the shamanistic complex? strauss emphasizes the necessity of belief in these traditions to have an effect. an example would be that the wape shaman SAID he had wiped out the children from the enemy village but there was absolutely no proof, yet the believed him whole-heartely
What is the Wape attitude toward western biomedicine they'll use it if provided but they don't really think it helps
How and why are masks an important part of Wape shamanic rituals? different masks for differnt disease/demon
The video focuses on the exorcism of a demon that has possessed a bachelor. Why did the exorcism fail? because it had been the wrong demon, they were exorcising for the wrong demon
Shamanism involves the performance of a dramatic ritual. How does the ritual itself play a role in healing? the shaman is supposed to be embodying the hekura, the performance shows that he is actually one with the spirits and not just himself anymore
naturalistic ethnomedicine disease caused by nature, loss of equilibrium, not related ot other misfortune and can be fixed by patient viligance
personalistic ethnomedicine disease caused by supernatural things, caused by an active agent, can have multiple casualties, tied to a person's religion, being fixed is beyond the patient's control
medicine systematic approach to fixing ones health
ethnomedicine how medicine makes sense as a part of a cultural system
culture of biomedicine ontology: mind/body distinction || etiology: mechanical || diagonsis: reduce to singular causes || therapy: attack and destroy the cause
body organic and functional. inanimate and controlled by the mind
mind emotion and though, controls the body
psychiatry confusion between the body and mind, brain is malfunctioning
magic beliefs designed to control visible or invisible world for specific purposes
efficacy of magic magic works if you believe in it, the healer must believe in it, the patient must believe in the healer's power
ritual manipulation of symbols to stimulate belief
shamans link between the natural and supernatural world, weird peope on the edge of reality, santa was a shaman
shamanic complex shaman has a calling (got sick/got hurt/got inspireed) and that gives him the ability to connect with the supernatural environment, shamans need a supporting audience to support your power as a shaman
key features of a shaman able to trance and experience psychosomatic ecstasy, can separate soul from body, can send soul to search for the lost souls of sick people, capture and return lost souls,communicate w spirits, has magical powers
phenomenology eliade: shamanic power comes from psychomatic experiences and the channeling of those experiences
structuralism levi-strauss: shamanic power derives from symbolic structure of rutualic processand manipulation of those symbols to create meaning
madness and power of of shamans its not that they're undergoing a traumatic disease, its that they can control their diseases
diseases is supposed to be the soul straying away/being stolen and the treatment is to find they're soul
becoming a shaman right of passage: separation (break w pervious social status), transition (point of having no social status), reintegration (incorporation into society w new status). apprenticeship w elder shaman: learning the secret and to keep the secret
secrets secrets bestow power, masks, taboos, fetishes, codes and music, all give shape to secrets
sayan korean shaman
initiation of a sayan week of purification, strict diet, 40 days isolation and hypnotic chanting, induces a sense of pwoer in the body
quesalid: power of belief
shaman and sorcery not always the same thing, use the ame kind of power, shamans run the ris of being accused of sorcery
vasuta dahuti cloth cleansing, cleaning the body by swalloing 25ft of clothes soaked in ghee and drinking ghee
pathanjali sage who is said to have written the first yoga sutras, 2nd century
origins of india comes from india, suppposedly comes from mystics that went to the mountains to gain a sense of conciousness
purusa sound of om=the sound that precedes the creation of everything
prakriti the things that make up life
rule of yoga our reality is corrupted
purusa + prakriti creation
the 3 gunas perfection is impossible, constantly searching for balance, must return to the balance of precreation
pran the energy you must manipulate to go back to the balance of precreation
swami kublyanand conducted epxeriments to prove the logical and empirical effects of yoga
samadhi a sate of being not dead or alive, connecting to your transcedental soul self
ashtanga yog the 8 branches of yoga, we focus on asana and pranayama. there's also yama, niyama, pratyahara, dharana, dhyana and samadhi
yama moral observances, non violence, no lying stealing, sex, attachment or possession
niyama self disipline, contentment, purity, austerity
hatha yoga forceful yoga, what you commonly see in america, trains the body to alllow it to withstand the force of enlightenment, stops the normal process of change
parallel bodies you have two kinds of bodies, subtle and gross, subtle is the pure and transcendent gross is your physical body, you try to manipulate the subtle body by manipulating the gross body
nadi conduits like veins but they channel the pran, connect to the cross body, there are 3 kinds, central nadi along spinal column, one that criss crosses the central nadi left -> right and one that crosses the central nadi right ->left
point of yoga break reality, flip it, prove that the reality we live in is a false reality
indian wrestling challenges what is considered good health, its not just a sport, its a way of life, a solution to the hectic city environment, natural state of gym compared to craziness of urban setting, an exculsively male setting, women are considered demons
wrestlers credo like to keep things pure, don't like excess, don't like things that indicate colonial ties like cricket, balance of body is important
ideal body type for wrestlers hanuman, his physical strength is a product of his devotion to his god, for wrestlers, their god is their guru
sex for wrestlers semen is considered energy and sgrength, no sex bc losing semen means losing strength
jodh sparring
langot signifies that they contain themselves, basically a diaper
body of one color the dirt, really important, physical fitness is based on muscle strength, mass, balance, devotion and celibacy, body that radiates one aura
healthy sickness lack of self control leads to loss in strength and moral character,tea shops, fast food, smokin
milk important, symbol of strength, material measure of importance, more mil = better. ability to eat all that food is a representation of their achievement
akhara gym, rural purity
ghee also important, wrestler's boddy is like ghee, they heat their body up and pull out the purified, clarified, version
nals stone weights
jori/gada swinging a club
What connection does the Dr. see between his Christian faith and the ideals and values of communism? What are these values? How does he put these ideals and values into practice? they clash, christianity and dr. shen's practice of medicine is all about giving and communal work but ocmmunism is all about everyone take care of their own stuff, a lot of communal things aren't being taken care of anymore
What effect did the revolution of 1949 have on medicine and medical practice? made things worse
What is the Dr’s opinion of folk healers, and why do you think he holds these views. Although he is a “traditional” healer, why is he not a folk healer? thinks they're fakes, his medicine is backed by science and years of practice
what opinions are expressed in the film about Western medicine? How is “traditional” medicine understood of as different from Western medicine? traditional medicine is for everyday things, western medicine is for really bad things, traditional medicine is about helping the people
In several scenes the Dr. is treating a patient who thinks that a cockroach has taken on human characteristics. How does the Dr. treat the patient? Do his treatment methods reflect a holistic, mindbody synthesis? accupuncture with electriccal currents to put his body back in balance
kanpo japanese interpretation and application of chinese medicine, herbs, massage, accupuncture and diet
organs in chinese medicine organs are functional systems of the body, nor just a single organ
yellow emporer comparable to hippocrates, father of chinese medicine
theory of correspondances accupuncture was developed in response to the break down of correspondances/relations between things in the universe
taoism started by lao tzu, harmony of nature, balanced opposition
qu very important, everything is a manifestation of qu, its the substance that keeps the body alive and is manipulated to cause change
complementary opposition nothing exists as eitherone or the other, everything exists as a balance of its complementary opposition
wu-xing: 5 phase theory fire, earth, metal, water, wood, these things all make each other but they also destroy each other
Created by: hsinha93
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