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Nervous System

A&P Corbit

Which 2 systems have the man responsibility of ensuring homeostasis nervous & endocrine
List 3 overlapping functions of the nervous system sensory input, integration, motor output
CNS= Central Nervous System
The CNS consist of the brain and spinal cord
PNS= Peripheral Nervous System
The PNS consist of cranial nerves and spinal nervous
Neuron= nerve cell
Neuroglia= nerve glue
Axons= carries outgoing signals
Dendrites= receives incoming signals
Synapse= gap between cells
Neurotransmitters= chemicals
Myelin= insulators for axons
Schwann Cells= insulation of the axons in the PNS, AKA myelin sheath
Neurilemma (neurolemma)= allows for the possibility of regeneration in the PNS
Multiple sclerosis= effects the myelin sheath
Ganglia= small collection of cell bodies in spinal cord
White matter= myelinated
Gray matter= unmyelinated
What is a cell when its polarized relaxed
When a cell is depolarized the cell is acting
Define reflexes rapid automatic responses to a stimulus (involuntary)
Somatic reflexes stimulate what the skeletal muscles
Autonomic reflexes regulate the activity of what smooth muscles
The CNS first appears as the neural tube
The largest part of the brain is the cerebrum
Coordination is regulated by the cerebellum
How many cerebral hemispheres? 2
Name the lobes of the cerebrum frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital
The surface of the brain is known as the cerebral cortex
The cerebral cortex consists of gray matter
What lobe receives impulses stretch receptors in muscles for conscious muscle sense and also functions with the sense of taste parietal lobes
what functions with the olfactory and auditory reactions temporal lobes
What area lets you think before you speak temporal lobes
what lobes are for vision and for neural plasticity occipital lobes
What lobes are the motor area that generate impulses for voluntary movement frontal lobes
The Broca's area controls speech
The left motor area controls the ______ side of the body right
The right motor controls the ________ side of the body left
What controls subconscious aspects of voluntary movements, and helps regulate muscle tone cerebellum
What connects the left and right hemispheres, and allows one hemisphere to know the activity of the other corpus callosom
The brain has how many ventricles 4
the brain 4 ventricles contain ____________which forms CSF from blood plasma choroid plexuses
Choroid plexus forms CSF from blood plasma
what area of the brain gives us our personality and sense of humor association
The _____________ helps us form memories hippo campus
What is concerned with sensation (except smell); supresses unimportant sensations thalamus
What is your bodies thermostat and regulates the body temperature hypothalamus
The 3 areas of the brain stem are mid-brain, pons and medulla oblongata
Which part of the brain stem is involved with vision and hearing mid-brain
Which part of the brain stem controls the respiratory rate pons
Which part of the brain stem controls our vital signs (B/P, pulse, respirations), swallowing, vomiting, coughing, sneezing, etc? medulla oblongata
hypothalamus functions produce ACh, produce growth hormone, regulate body temp, regulate food intake, regulate activity of the automatic nervous system, stimulate visceral responces, regulate body rhythm (circidian rhythm)
Define ataxia lack of coordination, clumsy
What is the name of the barrier that provides protection from harmful substances in the blood blood-brain barrier
Prevents potentially harmful substances from passing from the blood to the brain blood-brain barrier
List the three layers of the meninges dura-mater (outer layer), arachnoid mater (middle layer), pia mater (inner layer)
CSF= cerebrospinal fluid
The CSF is continually formed from blood by the ________ choroid plexuses, in each of the brains ventricles
The CSF forms a cushion that protects
The reabsorption rate of CSF should be the same as the rate of production
Define hydrocephalus CSF leaks into the brain
Define concussion slight brain injury, no bleeding
Define contusion brain strikes and rebounds off the skull causing brusing (bleeding)
CVA= cerebrovascular accident (stroke)
TIA= transient ischemic attack (mini stroke)
Define Alzheimer's disease progressive degenerative disorder of the brain, loss of short term memory
Parkinson's disease affects which part of the brain basal ganglia
The spinal cord begins at medulla oblongata
The spinal cord ends between L1-L2
How many pairs of spinal nerves are there 31
PNS= peripheral nervous system
What is a bundle of neuron fibers found outside the CNS a nerve
How many pairs of cranial nerves are there 12
ANS= Autonomic nervous system
Sympathetic nervous system is known as flight or fight
The parasympathetic nervous system is known as resting and digesting
What causes cerebral palsy decrease of oxygen during delivery
EEG= electroencephalogram
EEG measures brain wave activity
Anencephaly = no brain
Spina bifida= vertebra not completely fomed
thrombus clot that does not move
embolus clot that moves
Aneurysm= localized dialation of vessel or ballooning
Hemianopia= half vision
Apoplexy stroke
TIA= transient ischemic attack
Paraplegia= lower limbs are paralyzed
Quadriplegia= all 4 limbs are paralyzed
Hemiplegia= one side of body is paralyzed
MS= Multiple sclerosis - affects the myelin sheath
Contrecoup injury counter blow, 2 injuries
Sympathetic effects on the eye dilation of pupils, focusing for near vision
Parasympathetic effects of the eye constriction of pupils, focusing for distance vision
Sympathetic effects on sweat glands increases secretion
Parasympathetic effects on sweat glands none
Sympathetic effects on tear glands secretion
Parasympathetic effects on tear glands none
Sympathetic effects on the Arrector pili muscles contraction, erection of hairs
Parasympathetic effects on the Arrector pili muscle none
Sympathetic effects on the blood vessels vasoconstriction and vasodilation
Parasympathetic effects on the blood vessels none
Sympathetic effects on the heart increases heart rate. force of contraction, and blood pressure
Parasympathetic effects on the heart decreases heart rate. force of contraction, and blood presure
Sympathetic effects on the Respiratory System - airways increases diameter
Parasympathetic effects on the Respiratory System - airways decreases diameter
Sympathetic effects on the Respiratory System - Respiratory rate increase rate
Parasympathetic effects on the Respiratory System - Respiratory rate decrease rate
Sympathetic effects on the Digestive systems - general level of activity decreases activity
Parasympathetic effects on the Digestive systems - general level of activity increases activity
Sympathetic effects on the Digestive systems - liver glycogen breakdown, glucose synthesis and release
Parasympathetic effects on the Digestive systems - liver glycogen synthesis
Sympathetic effects on the Urinary System -kidneys decreases urine production
Parasympathetic effects on the Urinary System -kidneys Increase urine production
Sympathetic effects on the Urinary System -urinary bladder constricts sphincter, relaxes urinary bladder
Parasympathetic effects on the Urinary System -urinary bladder tenses urinary bladder, relaxes sphincter to eliminate urine
How many cervical spinal nerves are there 8 pairs
How many thoracic nerves are there 12 pairs
How many lumbar nerves are there 5 pair
How many sacrum nerves are there 5 pair
how many coccgeal nerves are there 1 pair
Cranial nerve functions - Olfactory smell
Cranial nerve functions - Optic vision
Cranial nerve functions- Oculomotor eyeball
Cranial nerve functions - Trochlear eyeball
Cranial nerve functions -Trigeminal face scalp and teeth
Cranial nerve functions -Abducens eyeball
Cranial nerve functions - facial facial expressions
Cranial nerve function- Vestibulocochlear balance and hearing
Cranial nerve function- Glossopharyngeal pharynx & tastebuds
Cranial nerve function- Vagus controls abdominal & thoracic visera
Cranial nerve function - Spinal accessory neck and shoulder muscles
Cranial nerve function - hypoglossal movement of the tounge
Knee jerk reflex is an example of somatic reflex
Phrenic nerve activates the diaphragm
The changes occurring within or outside that affect the nervous system functioning are called stimuli
Created by: jhowe2323



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