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Reproductive System

Chapter 22 Anatomy & Physiology

Primary sex organs are called Gonads
gonads in males include what Testes
Gonads in Females include what Ovaries
Gonads produce sex cells called Gametes
Gametes in in males produce what Sperm
Gametes in females produce what Eggs (ova)
extending from the abdomen to each testicle is a strand of connective tissue and muscle called the Spermatic Cord
it contains the sperm duct, Blood and lymphatic vessels, and nerves Spermatic Cord
the Sperm duct in the Spermatic Cord Vas Deference
two small oval _____ lie surrounded in a sac of tissue called the Scrotum Testes
the Sac holding the testes is called Scrotum
divides the scrotum, isolating each testicle Median Septum
this helps prevent any infection from spreading from one testes to the other Median Septum
Surrounds the spermatic cord Cremaster Muscle
in cold weather, it contracts to draw the testes closer to the body for warmth Cremaster Muscle
the testes contain a vast length of tubules and a series of _________ ducts Spermatic
Fibrous tissue separates each testis into over 200 _______ Lobules
Coiled within each lobule are one to three ___________ tubules Seminiferous
tiny ducts in which sperm are produced Seminiferous
Seminiferous tubules contain ________ in each layer in the process of becoming sperm Germ cells
A cell that gives rise to gametes Germ cells
Also contained in the wall of tubule are cylindrical cells called Sertoli Cells
these cells promote the development of sperm by supplying nutrients, removing waste and secreting a the hormone inhibin Sertoli Cells
Sertoli Cells secrets what hormone Inhibin
plays a role in the maturation and release of sperm Inhibin
lying between the seminiferous tubules are clusters of Interstitial Cells
Also called Leydig Cells Interstitial Cells
Produce Testosterone Interstitial Cells
A network of vessels that lead away from the seminiferous tubules Rete Testis
these vessels provide a location in which sperm partially matures Rete Testis
Conduct immature sperm away from the testis to the epididymis Efferent Ductules
Sperm passes into the _________, which is attached to the posterior side of the testis Epididymis
Sperm moves from the head of the _______ to the tail, maturing as they go Epididymis
Sperm is stored in the tail of the ________, Where they remain fertile for 40 to 60 days Epididymis
The aging of sperm disintegrate and are reabsorbed by the Epididymis
Sperm leaves the tail of the epididymis and pass into the Vas deferens
Travels up the spermatic cord, through the inguinal canal, and into the pelvic cavity Vas deferens
it loops over the ureter and descends along the posterior bladder wall. Vas deferens
As the Vas deferens turns downward , it widens into a ampulla and ends by joining the _________ to form the ejaculatory duct Seminal Vesicle
they pass though the prostate empty into the urethra Ejaculatory Ducts
Located in the base of the bladder, a pair of _________ secretes a thick, yellowish fluid into the ejaculatory duct. Seminal Vesicles
the fluid that comprises about 60% of semen Seminal Vesicles
Contains Fructose as well as other substances that nourish and ensure sperm motility Seminal Vesicles
n energy source for sperm for sperm motility Fructose
Sits just below the bladder, where it encircles both urethra and ejaculatory duct Prostate Gland
it secrete a thin, milky fluid into the urethra Prostate Gland
it comprises about 30% of the fluid portion of semen Prostate Gland
adds volume to semen Prostate Gland
Two Pea-shaped __________ secrete a clear fluid into the penile portion of the urethra during sexual arousal Bulbourethral Glands
Also called Cowper's Glands Bulbourethral Glands
Servers as a lubricant for sexual intercourse Bulbourethral Glands
the fluid that neutralizes the acidity of residual urine in the urethra, which would harm sperm Bulbourethral Glands
The body of the penis is called the Shaft
the slightly bulging head of the penis is called (nobody uses this term but its what the head is called...) Glans Penis
The loose skin covering the penis continues over the glans to form a cuff Prepuce
The Foreskin of the penis Prepuce
Sebaceous glands in the prepuce and foreskin secrete a waxy substance called Smegma
the two larger cylinders of tissue in the penis is called Corpus Cavernosa
the smaller cylinder of tissue in the penis that encircles the urethra Corpus Spongiosum
the first hormone secreted at the onset of puberty in both males and females Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
prompts the interstitial cells to begin secreting testosterone Luteinizing hormone (LH)
is also called interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH) Luteinizing hormone (LH)
primes the spermatogenic cells to respond to testosterone, and sperm production begins Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
the development of gametes involves a process called Meiosis
Sperm formation Spermatogenesis
begins when a male reaches puberty and usually continues throughout life Spermatogenesis
primitive sex cells with 46 chromosomes located in the walls of the seminiferous tubules Spermatogonia
divided by mitosis to produce two daughter cells, each with 46 chromosomes Spermatogonia
Spermatogonia differentiate into slightly larger cells called Primary Spermatocytes
move towards the lumen of the seminiferous tubule Primary Spermatocytes
through meiosis, the primary spermatocytes yields two genetically unique ____________, each 23 chromosomes Secondary Spermatocytes
Each secondary spermatocytes divides again to form two ____________ Spermatids
spermatids differentiate to form heads and tails and eventually transform into mature ________, each with 23 chromosomes Spermatozoa
the ____ of the sperm contains a nucleus, which is packed with genetic material Head
topping the head of the sperm is a cap call an Acrosome
contains enzymes that help sperm penetrate the egg during fertilization Acrosome
Contains numerous mitochondria that supply the sperm with the energy it need to migrate up the female reproductive tract Middle Piece
is a flagellum whose beating, whip like movements propel the sperm forward Tail
Emitted during the ejaculation that accompanies orgasm Semen
whitish fluid containing both sperm and fluid secretions of the accessory glands Semen
Contains between 40 and 100 million sperm Semen
An immature egg is called an Oocyte
A mature follicle of the ovary Is called Graafian Follicle
Oocyte and surrounding follicular cells Ovarian Follicle
Process whereby a mature ovum is formed Oogenesis
The tubes extending from near the ovary to the uterus Fallopian tubes
cells surrounding the oocyte Follicular cells
A muscular chamber that houses and nurtures a growing embryo Uterus
the portion of the fallopian tube closest to the uterus Isthmus
the middle portion of the fallopian tube and is the usual site of egg fertilization Ampulla
the distal funnel-shaped end of the fallopian tube is called the Infundibulum
finger like projections connected to the fallopian tube that fans over the ovary Fimbriae
the curved upper portion of the uterus is called the Fundus
the upper two corners of the uterus that connect with the fallopian tubes Fundus
the central region of the uterus is the Body
the inferior end of the uterus is called the Cervix
A passageway through the cervix called the ________, links the uterus to the vagina Cervical canal
the vagina extends slightly beyond the cervix, creating pockets called Fornices
Serves as a receptacle for the penis and sperm, a route for discharge of menstrual blood, and the passageway for the birth of a baby Vagina
the lower end of the vagina contains ridges called Vaginal rugae
A fold of mucus membrane the partially covers the entrance to the vagina Hymen
the outer layer of the uterus that is serous membrane Perimetrium
A thick middle layer of the uterus that consists of smooth muscle that contracts during labor to expel the fetus from the uterus Myometrium
the innermost layer of the uterus where the embryo attaches Endometrium
the external genitals are of the vagina is called Vulva
a mound of hair-covered adipose tissue overlying the symphysis pubis Mons Pubis
thick folds of skin and adipose tissue on the outside of the vagina Labia Majora
two thinner, hairless folds of skin just inside the labia mojora Labia Minora
the area inside the labia is called the Vestibule
it contains the urethral and vaginal openings Vestibule
on a female, A small mound of erectile tissue that resembles a penis Clitoris
its role is strictly sensory, providing a source of sexual stimulation in a female Clitoris
Also know as Skene's Glands lesser Vestibular glands
A pair of mucous glands, that open into the vestibule near the urinary meatus, providing lubrication lesser Vestibular glands
Also know as the Bartholin's glands Greater Vestibular glands
two-pea sized glands that sit on either side of the vaginal opening Greater Vestibular glands
each breast contains 15 to 20 ______ separated by fibrous tissue and adipose tissue Lobules
Each lobule consists of clusters of tiny, Sac-like _____ that secrete milk during lactation Acini
Acini have ducts that form into one duct called Lactiferous duct
before reaching the nipple, the Lactiferous ducts enlarge slightly to form Lactiferous sinuses
A pigmented area that encircles the nipple Areola
help support the breast and also serve to attach the breasts to underlying pectoralis muscles Suspensory Ligaments
Centers changes in the ovaries Ovarian Cycle
Focuses on changes in the uterus Menstrual Cycle
At birth, a female ovaries contain about 2million ________ oocytes
oocytes are also called Primary Follicles
the sudden spike in LH cause a follicle to rupture and the release the ovum- this process is called Ovulation
if fertilization doesn't occur, the corpus luteum degenerates to inactive scar tissue called the Corpus Albicans
Any method used to prevent pregnancy is called Contraception
Created by: Leci81



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