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Nissing Nutrit'n Ch3

Nutrition Ch3

If you find any errors on these slides, what do you do? (click this card for the answer) Email totallyjen@gmail.com and I'll fix it! Now click the green "correct" rectangle to go to the next card
What are the major groups into which body organization groups? Cells, Tissues, Organs, Organ systems, Organism
what is the cell membrane made up of? double layer of lipids
Where do cells get their energy and nutrients? Fats, carbs, proteins
Compartments and specialized structures that perform specific functions are called... organelles
Which organelle is considered the power plant of the cell, producing all aerobic energy? Mitochondria
Also embedded in the cell membrane, this helps provide rigidness and stability to the form of the cell cholesterol
This substance can make anaerobic energy, and is the interior of the cell excluding the nucleus cytoplasm
Organelle responsible for protein synthesis, has ribosomes attached to the outside of it Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Organelle responsible for fat synthesis, no ribosomes on surface Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Packaging center for exporting substances from cell Golgi apparatus
organelle responsible for digesting and breaking down parts of the cell that are not functioning properly. AKA "suicide bags" Lysosomes
organelle responsible for detoxifying harful chemicals like h2o2 (hydrogen peroxide) and alcohols are metabolized peroxisomes
Double membrane enclosed organelle that houses DNA, directs protein synthesis and cell division nucleus
Word meaning all the chemical processes that occur in and between cells to release energy, synthesize substances, prepare wastes. Metabolism
Metabolic process that requires energy Anabolic
Metabolic process that releases energy Catabolic
Name the four types of tissue in the body Epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
Tissue that lines surfaces, absorbs and secretes, like skin epithelial
Tissue that provides structure, like bones and tendons connective
Tissue that contracts to create movement muscle
Tissue that sends and receives electrical impulses nervous
Two circulatory systems Cardiovascular and lymphatic
Where does exchange occur in circulatory systems? capillaries and lymph vessels
Two what is the pathway of the portal system that nutrients follow before going into the general bloodstream? intestine, large vein, portal vein, liver, kidneys, bloodstream
Which system is responsible for circulating plasma and white blood cells, and composes the immune system? lymphatic system
What drives the motion of the fluids in the lymphatic system? motion of the body and muscles
Which part of the nervous system includes the brain and the spinal cord? Central Nervous System
Which part of the nervous system includes the receptors for sight, touch, and other senses? Peripheral nervous system
What is the basic unit of the nervous system that responds to electrical and chemical signals? Neuron
Continuous barrier that effects nutritional deficiencies Skin
What type of cell attacks microorganisms that invade your body? White blood cells
Which immune response "eats" invaders in your system? phagocytes
Which immune response has antibodies and antigen response Cell mediated immunity
Motion of a tube squeezing its contents from the opening to the exit peristalsis
Name two places where peristalsis occurs in the body Esophagus (tube in throat that moves food toward stomach) and intestines (moves food toward rectum)
Mixture of partially digested food, liquids, stomach acids that move from the stomach into the intestines Chyme
What is the word for gastric juices digesting the person? autodigestion
What is the purpose of villi in the small intestine? increase surface area to increase the rate of absorption of nutrients
When molecules diffuse, they move from an area of __________ concentration to _____________ concentration From HIGHER to LOWER concentration - in other words, they were all packed together (high concentration) and they spread out.
What is inside the large intestine? Poop. It comes in from the small intestine all liquidy, just water and undigestible stuff because the stuff we do digest has been digested. The large intestine just takes the water out then expels the rest.
What is the difference between prebiotics and probiotics? probiotics are the bacteria that you want in your body. Prebiotics are substances that help probiotics grow.
What's in your stool? undigestible food, dead intestinal cells, some water, bacteria
The pancreas, gallbladder, and liver are called ______________ organs of the digestive system. Accessory
Bile is produced by the ___________ and stored in the _____________ Produced by the liver, stored by the gallbladder
This organ is an accessory organ to the digestive system and it produces insulin, glycogen, and pancreatic juices pancreas
recycling system of bile enterohepatic system
What is the medical term for chewing? Mastication
Before it enters the stomach, what is the name of the lump of chewed food, saliva, and mucus? Bolus
System including following organs? kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra Urinary system
Acid-base balance (pH) occurs primarily in these two systems Urinary (in kidneys) and respiratory (in lungs)
Where are carbs stored in our body? In liver and muscle in form of glycogen
Where is fat stored in our body? In adipose tissue (the fat under our skin that makes us look flabby or thick)
Study of how our health and nutrition is effected by our genetics Nutrigenomics
swollen veins of the rectum and/or anus Hemorrhoids
What is the best treatment for constipation? Increase fiber, water, and movement
What causes celiac disease? Allergic reaction to gluten in wheat, rye, barley
Created by: jenissing