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Chapter 2

The Human Body in Health & Disease

QuestionAnswer
abdominal cavity The space bounded by the abdominal walls, diaphragm, and pelvis and containing most of the organs of digestion, the spleen, the kidneys, and the adrenal glands.
adenectomy surgical excision of a gland.
adenocarcinoma a malignant tumor arising from secretory epithelium.
adenoma a benign tumor originating in a secretory gland.
adenomalacia undue softness of a gland.
adenosclerosis The hardening of a gland.
anaplasia the loss of structural differentiation within a cell or group of cells.
anatomy dissection of all or part of an animal or plant in order to study its structure.
anterior situated before or at the front of; fore ( opposed to posterior ).
aplasia defective development or congenital absence of a limb, organ, or other body part.
bloodborne transmission indirect transmission of an infectious agent that occurs when blood is tranfused
caudal of, at, or near the tail or the posterior end of the body.
cephalic situated or directed toward the head.
chromosomes any of several threadlike bodies, consisting of chromatin, that carry the genes in a linear order: the human species has 23 pairs, designated 1 to 22 in order of decreasing size and X and Y for the female and male sex chromosomes respectively.
communicable disease a disease the causative agents of which may pass or be carried from one person to another directly or indirectly.
congenital disorder Existing at or before birth usually through heredity, as a disorder.
cytoplasm the cell substance between the cell membrane and the nucleus, containing the cytosol, organelles, cytoskeleton, and various particles.
distal situated away from the point of origin or attachment, as of a limb or bone; terminal. Compare proximal.
dorsal of, pertaining to, or situated at the back, or dorsum.
dysplasia abnormal growth or development of cells, tissue, bone, or an organ.
endemic present within a localized area or peculiar to persons in such an area
endocrine glands any of various glands, as the thyroid, adrenal, and pituitary glands, that secrete certain substances or hormones directly into the blood or lymph; ductless gland.
epidemic affecting many persons at the same time, and spreading from person to person in a locality where the disease is not permanently prevalent.
epigastric region the abdominal region that is superior and central in location
etiology the study of the causes of diseases.
exocrine glands any of several glands, as the salivary glands, that secrete externally through a duct.
funtional disorder A physical disorder in which the symptoms have no known or detectable organic basis but are believed to be the result of psychological factors such as emotional conflicts or stress. Also called functional disease .
genetic disorder A disease or condition caused by an absent or defective gene or by a chromosomal aberration
geriatrician the branch of medicine dealing with the diseases, debilities, and care of aged persons.
hemophilia any of several X-linked genetic disorders, symptomatic chiefly in males, in which excessive bleeding occurs owing to the absence or abnormality of a clotting factor in the blood.
histology the branch of biology dealing with the study of tissues.
homeostasis the maintenance of metabolic equilibrium within an animal by a tendency to compensate for disrupting changes
hyperplasia abnormal multiplication of cells.
hypertrophy abnormal enlargement of a part or organ; excessive growth.
hypogastric region the abdominal region that is inferior and central in location
hypoplasia abnormal deficiency of cells or structural elements.
iatrogenic illness Any complication related to diagnosis and treatment of disease, regardless of whether the condition occurs as a known risk of a procedure or through errors of omission or commission
idiopathic disorder any disease arising from internal dysfunctions of unknown cause
infectious disease one due to organisms ranging in size from viruses to parasitic worms
inguinal of, pertaining to, or situated in the groin.
medial situated in or pertaining to the middle; median; intermediate.
mesentery the membrane,that invests the intestines, attaching them to the posterior wall of the abdomen, maintaining them in position in the abdominal cavity, and supplying them with blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics
midsagittal plane one passing longitudinally through the middle of the body from front to back, dividing it into right and left halves.
nosocomial infection are infections that are a result of treatment in a hospital or a healthcare service unit.
pandemic (of a disease) prevalent throughout an entire country, continent, or the whole world; epidemic over a large area.
pelvic cavity body cavity that is bounded by the bones of the pelvis and which primarily contains reproductive organs, the urinary bladder, and the rectum
peritoneum the serous membrane lining the abdominal cavity and investing its viscera.
phenylketonuria an inherited disease due to faulty metabolism of phenylalanine, characterized by phenylketones in the urine and usually first noted by signs of mental retardation in infancy.
physiology the branch of biology dealing with the functions and activities of living organisms and their parts, including all physical and chemical processes.
posterior situated behind or at the rear of; hinder ( opposed to anterior ).
proximal situated toward the point of origin or attachment, as of a limb or bone. Compare distal
retroperitoneal Situated behind the peritoneum.
stem cells a cell that upon division replaces its own numbers and also gives rise to cells that differentiate further into one or more specialized types, as various B cells and T cells.
thoracic plane a plane used to divide the mediastinum into a superior mediastinum and inferior mediastinum.
umbilicus the depression in the center of the surface of the abdomen indicating the point of attachment of the umbilical cord to the embryo; navel.
ventral situated on or toward the lower, abdominal plane of the body; equivalent to the front, or anterior, in humans.
vector-borne transmission indirect transmission of an infectious agent that occurs when a vector bites or touches a person
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