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Nissing Micro Ch2

Micro Ch2 Chemistry of Microbiology (ORG MOLECULES, Fn GROUPS)

Anything that takes up space and has mass Matter
Smallest chemical units of matter Atoms
In 1913, this physicist proposed the model of electrons orbiting a nucleus of protons and neutrond Niels H. D. Bohr
Negatively charged subatomic particles electrons
positively charged subatomic particle proton
uncharged subatomic particle neutron
Matter composed of a single type of atom element
Number representing the number of protons in the nucleus of the atoms of an element atomic number
Number representing the sum of the masses of the protons, neutrons, and electrons Atomic mass (sometimes called atomic weight)
Name for one atomic mass unit, which refers to the weight of a single proton or neutron Dalton
The mass of an electron is significantly (smaller/larger) than the mass of a proton smaller, about 0.00054 of a dalton, which is why electrons don't contribute significantly to atomic mass.
Atoms of an element with different numbers of neutrons are called... isotopes
Isotopes are written either with a superscript number and the symbol of the element, or the name of the element followed by a number. What does the number represent? the mass of that atom. For example, carbon-12 has 6n+6p=12. carbon-13 has 7n+6p=13.
When unstable isotopes release subatomic particles, this is known as... radioactive decay
Which subatomic particle determines the atom's chemical behavior? electrons
Isotopes of different chemicals all behave in (the same/different) way in chemical reactions. The same. Because only the nuclei of isotopes vary, the electrons are the same and therefore have the same chemical behavior
Electrons move around the nucleus in 3-D patterns that are referred to as... shells or clouds
The outermost shell of atoms is called... valence shell, valence electrons
The combining capacity of an atom valence
The valence of an atom is considered positive if... it has extra electrons on its valence shell to give up
The valence of an atom is considered to be negative if... its valence shell has spaces to fill
When atoms combine with one another by either sharing or transferring valence electrons in such a way as to fill their valance shells, this is what kind of bond? Chemical bond
Two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds are called. a molecule
A molecule that contains atoms of more than one element is called... a compound
What are the three types of chemical bond? Nonpolanr covalent, Polar covalent, and Ionic
Which type of bonding occurs when two atoms share a pair of electrons? Covalent bonding
Name the attraction atom has for electrons electronegativity
A covalent bond made between two atoms with similar electronegativities will be... nonpolar
H-H and H:H are both what kind of formula? Structural
H2 is what kind of formula? Molecular
What two atoms are required to create organic compounds? Carbon and Hydrogen
If a covalent bond is formed between two atoms with significantly different electronegativities, this forms a... polar covalent bond
In this kind of bond, a shared electron pair will spend more of its time orbiting the more electronegative nucleus polar covalent bond
In a polar covalent bond, one atom will experience a transient (partial) negative charge. Which one? The one with the greater electronegativity because it will have an extra electron most of the time
Which molecules are generally water soluble? Those with polar covalent bonds
Which type of bond is formed by cations and anions? ionic bond
When a low-electronegative atom like Na loses an electron to a high-electronegative atom, it becomes a positively charged ion called a... cation
When a high-electronegative atom like Cl gains an electron from a low-electronegative atom, it becomes a negatively charged ion called an... anion
Water molecules have polar bonds that interfere with ionic bonds, causing... dissociation or ionization
When dissociated cations and anions become hydrated, they are called... electrolytes, which can conduct electricity
In which type of chemical bond are electrons transferred to one another, then attracted to eachother by their changed charges? ionic
These weak bonds are a consequence of a polar covalent bond Hydrogen bond
Term that describes the making or breaking of chemical bonds Chemical Reaction
All chemical reactions begin with the atoms, ions, or molecules that will be part of the reaction. They are called the... reactants
All chemical reaction result in these; they are the atoms, ions, or molecules left after the reaction is complete products
term meaning chemical reactions of living things biochemistry
The numbers and types of atoms (do/do not) change in a chemical reaction do not
Formation of larger, more complex molecules by combining reactants Synthesis reaction
Two smaller molecules are joined together by a covalent bond, removing 2 hydrogens and an oxygen. So a water molecule will be a product dehydration synthesis
This reaction occurs when a hydrogen molecule (H+) from one reactant combines with a hydroxyl ion (OH-) from another reactant Dehydration, because H20 will be a product
Reactions that require energy, and trap energy within new molecular bonds Endothermic
Term meaning all of the synthesis reactions in an organism anabolism
The reverse of synthesis reactions, breaking bonds with larger molecules to form smaller products Decomposition reactions
Reactions that release energy that were stored in their bonds Exothermic
Covalent bond in a large molecule is broken down and the ionic components of water (H+ and OH-) are added to the products. Hydrolysis, hydrolytic reaction
Term meaning decomposition reactions in an organism Catabolism
Reactions that have features similar to both synthesis and decomposition reactions, involving breaking and forming bonds, endothermic and exothermic Exchange reactions, aka transfer reactions
Chemical reactions in an organism, including catabolism, anabolism, and exchange reactions metabolism
Chemicals typically lacking carbon, including water, metals, acids, bases, and salts Inorganic substances, inorganic chemicals
What causes water molecules to have the cohesive properties such as surface tension? Hydrogen bonds
Substance that dissociates into one or more hydrogen ions and one or more anions. Acid
Molecules that bind with H+ when dissolved in water Base
Substances such as proteins that prevent drastic changes in internal pH buffers
KH2PO4 a buffer often used in microbiological media, combining with H+ in acidic conditions, releasing H+ ions in alkaline conditions
Cations and anions of salts which are used by cells to create electrical differences, to transfer ions, and as components of enzymes electrolytes
Name the functional group: -NH2 Amino, in all amino acids
Name the functional group: -OH or HO- Hydroxyl, in all alcohols
Name the functional group: -CHO Aldehyde
Name the functional group: -CO Ketones
Name the functional group: -COOH Carboxylic acid
Name the functional group: -OPO3(-2) Organic phosphates
Name the functional group: -SH Thiols Sulfhydryl
Atoms that often appear in certain common arrangements functional groups
4 macromolecules used by all organisms carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
Diverse group of organic macromolecules not composed of regular subunits and hydrophobic lipids
Macromolecule composed almost entirely of carbon and hydrogen atoms linked by nonpolar covalent bonds Lipids (nonpolar = nonwater) include fats, phospholipids, waxes, steroids
Type of lipid created via dehydration synthesis reaction forming esters between three chainlike acids and an alcohol named glycerol Fats, or triglycerides
How many carbon atoms are in any one of the three fatty acids that make up a fat? 12 to 20
If every carbon atom except the terminal one is linked solely by a single bond to two hydrogen atoms, this fatty acid is said to be... saturated fatty acid
If a fatty acid has at least one double bond between adjacent carbon atoms, thereby creating at least one carbon atom bound only to a single hydrogen atom, it is called... Unsaturated fatty acid
If multiple double bonds exist in a fatty acid of a molecule of fat, it is said to be... polyunsaturated fat
The type of fats found in animals that are usually solid at room temp are... saturated, and closely pack together
The type of fats found in plans that are usually liquid at room temp are... unsaturated
Fats can be catabolized to provide energy for these 3 functions: movement, synthesis, transport
The carbon atoms of a glycerol are connected to two fatty acid chains and one phosphate group Phospholipids
These lipids have a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail phospholipids
These lipids have one long-chain fatty acid linked covalently to a long-chain alcohol by an ester bond and are completely hydrophobic waxes
A lipid that consists of four rings of 5-6 carbons with various side chains and functional groups, like cholesterol Steroid
Lipid that consists of four rings of 5-6 carbons with various side chains and functional groups, one is a hydroxyl. Sterol
What's the difference between a steroid and a sterol? Sterols have an -OH on them
Organic molecules composed solely of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1 Carbohydrate
Large carbohydrates such as starch and glycogen are used for ________________ storage of energy long term
Glucose, a smaller carbohydrate molecule, is used as a ______________________ source in most cells ready energy
These macromolecules form part of the backbones of DNA and RNA Carbohydrates
polymers of this macromolecule form the cell walls of most fungi, plants, algae, and prokaryotes carbohydrates and phosphates
The simplest carbohydrates are simple sugars, known as... monosaccharides
The general name for carbs with 5 carbons like deoxyribose, the sugar component in DNA, is ... pentose
Sucrose, a disaccharide, is created by the linkage of glucose and fructose by releasing a water molecule. This process is known as... dehydration synthesis
A long unbranched molecule of only B-1,4 bonds of glucose that is the main constituent of plant and algae cell walls Cellulose
A long unbranched molecule of only a-1,4 bonds of glucose that is a starch storage compound in plants Amylose
A highly branched molecule with both a-1,4 and B-1,4 bonds of glucose formed in animal livers Glycogen
Cell walls of bacteria are composed of polysaccharides and amino acids, making... peptidoglycan
Name the elements which compose proteins C, H, O, N, S
Name 3 functions proteins perform Structure, catalysis, regulation, transportation, defense/offense
Proteins are polymers made up of monomers called... amino acids
An amino acid has these components: a carbon attached to an amino group (NH2), a carboxyl group (COOH), a hydrogen (H), and a side group ("R")
How many amino acids are used by most organisms to synthesize proteins? 21
Base or acid: carboxyl group acid
Base or acid: amino group base
Because amino acids have both acidic carboxyl and basic amino groups, this means... it has both positive and negative charges and is easily soluble in water
D forms of molecules bend light in which direction? clockwise ("D" often means right, and clockwise is sort of to the right)
L forms of molecules bend light in which direction? counterclockwise ("L" for left)
organic molecules that have both a D and an L form, with all the same atoms and functional groups but are mirror images of each other stereoisomers
The what are the common stereoisomer for amino acids and sugars? Amino acids - L Sugars - D
What is a peptide bond? A covalent bond by dehydration synthesis between the carbon of one amino acid's carboxyl and the nitrogen of another's amino group
two amino acids linked together is called a... dipeptide (polypeptide is more)
This structure refers to the sequence of amino acids and can drastically affect the overall structure and function of the protein, even forming a prion Primary structure
This structure refers to the repetitive a-helices or B-pleated sheets formed by ionic and hydrogen bonds Secondary structure
This structure refers to non repetitive 3-D shapes caused by covalent bonds between -R groups of amino acids, hydrogen and ionic bonds, and other molecular interactions Tertiary structure
This structure can cause nonpolar sides of chains to fold away from water Tertiary structure
In tertiary structure, these covalent bonds are critical in maintaining tertiary structure disulfide bridge
This structure refers to the linking of two or more polypeptide chains by disulfids bonds making a globular or fibrous shape Quaternary structure
glycoproteins are made by covalently binding what two molecules? protein and carbohydrate
lipoproteins are made by bonding what two molecules? Lipids and proteins
The process by which a disruption occurs to the 3-D structure by change in temp, pH, NaCl concentration, etc interfering with hydrogen and ionic bonds denaturation
Unbranched macromolecular polymers containing vital genetic material of cells and viruses DNA and RNA
Name the 3 parts of a nucleotide phosphate (PO4), a pentose sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), nitrogenous base
Name the 5 cyclic nitrogenous bases Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thyamine, Uracil
Name the 2 double-ringed purines Adenine, Guanine
Name the 3 single-ringed pyrimadines Cytosine, Thymine, Uracil
Which pentose sugar does DNA contain? deoxyribose
Name the parts of a nucleoside pentose sugar and nitrogenous base. It's like a nucleotide without the phosphate
Polymerization of nucleic acids result in a linear spine composed of these two alternating groups. phosphates and pentose sugars
What do you find at the 5' end of a nucleotide chain? Carbon 5' of the sugar attached to a phosphate group
What do you find at the 3' end of a nucleotide chain? Carbon 3' of the sugar is not attached to a phosphate group
How many hydrogen bonds form between Cytosine and Guanine? Three
How many hydrogen bonds form between Adenine and Thymine or Uracil? Two
Two DNA strands run so that one is from the 3' end to the 5' end and the other is the opposite. What is this called? antiparallel
This is the genetic material for all organisms and many viruses, and carries instructions for RNA synthesis DNA
What is the principal short term recyclable energy supply for cells? ATP
ATP is a structural molecule in what? Coenzymes, like flavin adenine dinucleotide, nicotinamide nucleotide, coenzyme A
Think you know organic molecules? Scroll down and click on the target to TEST yourself
Created by: jenissing