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Unit 5 APHG

Language

TermDefinition
Language A set of sounds, combination of sounds, and symbols that are used for communication
Culture The sum total of knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior patterns shared and transmitted by the member of a society. (Ralph Linton)
Standard Language The varient of a language that a country's political and intellectual elite seek to promote as the norm for use in schools, government, the media, and other aspects of public life
Dialects Local or reional characteristics of a languages
Isogloss A geographic boundary whithin which a particular linguistic feature occurs
Mutual Intelligibility The ability of two people to understand eachother when talking
Dialect Chains Set of contigious dialects in which the the dialects nearest to each other at any place in the chain are most closely related
Subfamilies Divisions within a language family where the commonalities are more definite and the origin is more recent
Sound Shift Slight change in a word across languages within a subfamily or through a language family from the present backward toward the origin
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) Linguistic hypothesis that is the hearth of the ancient Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit languages which hearth would link modern languages form Scandinavia to North Africa and from North America through parts of Asia to Austrailia.
Backward Reconstruction The tracking of sound shifts and hardening of consonants "Backwards" towards the original language
Extinct Language Language without any native speakers
Deep Reconstruction Technique using the vocabulary of n extict language to re-create the language that proceeded the extinct language
Nostratic Believed to be ancestoral language of PIE, Kartvelian, Uralic-Altaic, Dravadian, and Afro-Asitic languages
Language Divergence opposite of Language convergence
Language Convergence The collapsing of two languages into one resulting from the consistent spacial interaction of peoples with different languages
Renfrew Hypothesis 3 areas in and near the first agricultual hearth,the Fertile Crescent, gave rise to the three language families: 1)Indo-European 2)North African and Arabian 3)Present-dy Iran (Colin Renfrew)
Conquest Theory Early speakers diffused Proto-Indo-European via overpowering on horseback
Dispersal Hypothesis Hypothesis which holds that the Indo-European languages that arose from the Proto-Indo-European were first carried eastward into Southwest Asia, next around the Caspian Sea, and the across the Russian-Ukrainian plains and onto the Balkans
Romance Languages French, Spanish, Italian, Romanian,and Portuguese (Once controlled by Roman Empire)
Germanic Languages English, German, Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish (Northern Europe to West and South)
Slavic Languages Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Ukrainian, Slovenian, Serbo-Croarian, and Bulgarian (Slavic people migrated)
Lingua Franca language used among speakers of different languages for the porpose of trade and commerce
Pidgin Language when parts of two or more languages are ocmbined in a simplified structure and vocabulary
Creole Language begins with a pidgin language but was later adopted as the mother tongue by people in a place of the mother tongue
Monolingual States countries in which onlly one language is spoken
Multilingual States more than one language is spoken
Offical Language in multilingual states, the main language used for offical things
Global Language most used languag around the world
Place uniqueness of a location
Toponym place name
Language Families groups of languages with a shared but fairly distant origin
Created by: wrosenquist6359