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APHG Language Ch. 5

Flash cards for APHG Chapter 5

What is the Renfrew Hypothesis? (aka. Anatolian Hypothesis) Three areas in and near the first agricultural area (the Fertile Crescent) gave rise to three language families.
Explain the Renfrew Hypothesis. 1) Europe received Indo-European from Anatolia (Turkey). 2) North Africa and Arabia received Afro Asiatic languages from Western arc of Fertile Crescent. 3) Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India received Dravidian from Fertile Crescent's eastern arc.
What is the Conquest Theory? A theory on how Proto-Indo European diffused into Europe. Speakers of Proto-Indo European spread from east to west on horseback.
What is the Agricultural Theory? The spread of the Proto-Indo European language through peaceful sharing of food.
What is the Dispersal Hypothesis? A theory on how Proto-Indo European diffused into Europe. Proto-Indo European began in Caucasus Mountains region and spread eastward before spreading westward.
What is the most common Sino-Tibetan (Chinese) language? Mandarin (Spoken by 3/4 of people in China). Most spoken language in the world.
What percentage of people speak a Sino-Tibetan (Chinese) language? 20% of the world.
What is the main other Sino-Tibetan language? Cantonese.
What do the languages of Sino-Tibetan have in common? What is a difference? Languages are pronounced differently, but the written form of each language is the same.
What about other East and SE Asia languages? Japanese (island) and Korea (hermit island) are from different language families. ISOLATION.
What family is the main language of Vietnamese? Austro-Asiatic.
What are some languages in the Romance branch (Indo-European Language Family) that, like English, have been spread by colonialism? Spanish, French, Italian, Romanian, and Portuguese.
What percentage of people speak an Afro-Asiatic Language? 5% of people. (Middle East)
What two major books were written in the Afro-Asiatic Language Family? Bible and Quran
What is the major language and a revived language in the Afro-Asiatic Language Family? Arabic and Hebrew
How was Arabic spread? By Islamic faith and Islamic (Ottoman) Empires.
Hebrew was the language of what along with Aramaic? Old Testament.
When and where was Hebrew completely revived from extinction? Israel in 1948.
How many languages are in the African language family? Nearly 1,000 languages (caused by little interaction with other cultural groups).
What is the major African language family? Where are most of its speakers? Niger-Congo, (95% of speakers in sub-Saharan Africa).
What is the most important language in Eastern Africa? Swahili.
Where were the Altaic and Uralic language families thought to have begun? The steppes between Tibet and China.
What is the most common Altaic and Uralic language? Turkish
What did Kemal Ataturk order and why? Turkish to be written using the Roman alphabet and not Arabic to increase communication within European countries and to modernize the economy and culture.
Which countries are Altaic languages the offical languages? Some countries that broke off from the Soviet Union.
Where are Uralic languages found? Estonia, Finland, and Hungary.
What does the survival of a language depend on? Political and military strength of its speakers.
Why are endangered languages disappearing? Globalization - Migration (Urbanization), Economic Development (Lingua Franca), Media, and Internet.
Created by: Tmathieu
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