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Cultural Landscape 7

Ethnicity: Rubenstein

QuestionAnswer
Define ethnicity. Identity with a group of people who share the cultural traditions of a particular homeland.
What is the difference between ethnicity and race? Race is biological (group of people who share biological ancestors) and ethnicity is cultural (group of people who share traditions). Racial traits are transmitted genetically.
What connects race to place? Members of ethnic groups (and their families) are born and raised in a particular place, and their culture comes from the particular conditions and practices of their homeland
Why is ethnicity important to geographers? Rubenstein considers ethnicity "immutable" - people can ignore it, but they cannot change it. It preserves local diversity.
What are the two scales of ethnic clusters? Regional concentrations and neighborhood concentrations.
What are the 3 migration patterns that shape African Americans in the US? Forced migration from Africa to America in the 1800s, immigration from the South to the North in the early 20th century, and immigration from inner city ghettos to other urban ghettos later in the later 20th century.
What is the triangular slave trade? 1. Ships went from Europe to Africa with cloth and trade goods for slaves. 2. Traveled with slaves and gold to the Caribbean. 3. Traded slaves for sugar and took the sugar back to Europe.
What is a share cropper? Someone who works fields rented from a landowner and pays rent with the crops from the fields.
What are the prominent ethnic groups in the US? Asian Americans, African Americans, and Hispanic Americans.
What was blockbusting? Illegal practice of inducing homeowners to sell their properties by telling them that a certain people of a certain race, national origin or religion are moving into the area
What is apartheid? the physical separation of different races into different geographical areas (ie, South Africa's system of dividing all people into 4 races that controlled the schools, jobs, and property they could have)
What is nationality? Shared identity with a group of people who have legal and personal ties to a particular country.
What is a nation-state? A political entity whose territory corresponds to an ethnic group that has become a nation
What is the concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves? Self-determinism
What is nationalism? Loyalty and devotion to a nation that exalts one nation's culture and interests above others
How is nationalism a centripetal force? Nationalist attitudes unify people and build support for a state (pulling toward the nation).
States with more than one ethnicity are ... multiethnic
What is a multinational state? A state that contains two or more self-determinist ethnic groups
What was the largest multinational state? The Soviet Union, with 15 ethnic groups
What is it called when a more powerful ethnic group creates an ethnically homogenous region by forcing a less powerful group to leave? Ethnic cleansing
What is it called when a state breaks down through ethnic conflicts? Balkanization
Define racism belief that race is the primary determination of human traits, capabilities; racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race.
Hutu Central African ethnic group; majority in Rwanda; traditionally farmers; excluded from gov't by colonial powers
Tutsi Central African ethnic group; minority in Rwanda; traditionally herders; elevated to authority by colonial Germany and Belgium
Race shared identity with a group of people descended from a common ancestor; A socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important
Ethnic groups living in specific area - can be caused by choice or restrictive covenants Residential segregation
Part of Burgess' concentric model that explains a zone just outside the CDB that is constantly in transition (no development & investment) Invasion
Succession In Burgess' concentric zone model of urban growth, succession is the process of new people move in close to the CBD, pushing existing people and activities toward the outer rings of the city (ie, Chicago)
Feudal system A social, economic, and political hierarchy (ie king, baron, knight, serfs in medieval Europe) that limited urban development
Kerner Commission National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders reported that US cities were divided into separate and UNEQUAL societies (one black and one white)
Based on the Spanish word barrio (neighborhood), term used to describe rapid growth of Hispanic population in an area Barrioization
Whites who arrived in South Africa from Holland Boers (Dutch word for farmer) or Afrikaans (name of Dutch dialect)
Homelands Under apartheid in S. Africa, the gov't created 10 areas where blacks would be citizens. Post-apartheid, the homelands were abolished
Created by: Perthenia