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Chap 10 Terms & Def

IU MED TERM Chap 10 Terms & Def

Chap 10 TermsChap 10 Definitions
ankylosis stiffening and immobility of a joint as a result of disease, trauma, surgery, or abnormal bone fusion
carpal tunnel syndrome painful condition resulting from compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel (wrist canal through which the flexor tendons and the median nerve pass)
claudication lameness, limping
contracture fibrosis of connective tissue in skin, fascia, muscle, or joint capsule that prevents normal mobility of the related tissue or joint
crepitation dry, grating sound or sesation caused by bone ends rubbing together, indicating a fracture or joint destruction
electromyography use of electrical stimulation to record the strength of muscle contraction
exacerbation increase in severity of a disease or of any of its symptoms
ganglion cyst tumor of tendon sheath or joint capsule, commonly found in the wrist
hypotonia loss of muscular tone or a diminished resistance to passive stretching
hemarthrosis effusion of blood into a joint caity
multiple myeloma primary malignant tumor that infiltrates the bone and red bone marrow
osteophyte bony outgrowth that occasionally develops on the vertebra and may exert pressure on the spinal cord
phantom limb perceived sensation, following amputation of a limb, that the limb still exists
prosthesis replacement of a misssing part by an artificial substitute, such as an artificial extremity
rickets, rachitis form of osteomalacia in children caused by vitamin D deficiency
sequestrum fragment of necrosed bone that has become separated from surrounding tissue
spondylolisthesis any forward slipping (subluxation) of a vertebra over the one below it
spondylosis degeneration of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae and related tissues
sprain tearing of ligament tissue that may be slight, moderate, or complete
strain to exert physical force in a manner that may result in injury, usually muscular
subluxation partial or incomplete dislocation
arthrography series of radiographs taken after injection of a radiopaque substance into a joint cavity, especially the knee or shoulder to outline the contour of the joint
computed tomography (CT) scan imaging technique achieved by rotating an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measuring the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles; formerly called computerized axial tomography
dual energy x-ray absorptiometry technique to measure bone density for purpsoes of diagnosis and management of osteoporosis
lumbosacral spinal radiography (LS spine) radiography of the five lumbar vertebrae and the fused sacral vertebrae, including anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique views of the lower spine
myelography radiography of the spinal cord after injection of a contrast medium to identify and study spinal distortions caused by tumors, cysts, herniated intervertebral disks, or other lesions
closed reductions manual correction of fractures without incision
casting application of a solid, stiff dressing formed with plaster of Paris or other material to a body part to immobilize it during the healing process
splinting use of an orthopedic device to an injured body part for immobilization, stabilization, and protection during the healing process
traction using weights and pulleys to align or immobilize a fracture and facilitate the healing process
amputation partial or complete removal of a limb
arthrocentesis puncture of a joint space to remove accumulated fluid
arthroclasia surgical breaking of an anklosed joint to provide movement
arthroscopy visual examination of a joint, especially the knee; used primarily to detect trauma or lesions and to obtain a biopsy of synovial tissue for microscopic examination
bursectomy excision of bursa (padlike sac or cavity found in connective tissue, usually in the vicinity of joints)
bone grafting implanting or transplanting bone tissue from another part of the body or from another person to serve as replacement for damaged or missing bone tissue
laminectomy excision of the posterior arch of a vertebra
open reduction treatment of bone fractures using surgery to place the bones in proper position
sequestrectomy excision of a sequestrum (segment of necrosed bone)
synovectomty excision of a synovial membrane
Created by: khandoggy