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Nissing Micro Ch6

Micro Ch6 Microbial Nutrition and Growth (AEROBE TUBES)

Organisms use a variety of nutrients for energy needs and to build organic molecules and cellular structures. Name the 6 most necessary elements. Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, Sulfer (CHNOPS)
Where can Carbon be found? Protein, Carbs, Lipids, Nucleic Acid, CO2
Where can Hydrogen be found? pretty much everywhere, unlimited in supply
Where can Nitrogen be found? N2 (inorganic and unusable for many organisms), Nucleic Acid
Where can Oxygen be found? Carbohydrates, Proteins, Nucleic Acids, Atmospheric O2, H2O,
Where can Phosphorus be found? Phospholipids, Nucleic Acid
Where can Sulfur be found? Proteins
These organisms can "carbon fix", meaning they can take Carbon directly out of the atmosphere Autotrophs
These organisms need to consume other organisms to get Carbon Heterotroph
These organisms get their energy from chemicals Chemotrophs
These organisms get their energy from light Superman and other Phototrophs
Give an example of a photoautotroph Plants, algae, cyanobacteria, green and purple sulfur bacteria
Give an example of a photoheterotroph Green and purple NONsulfur bacteria, some archaea
Give an example of a chemoheterotroph Most animals, fungi, progozoas, most bacteria
Give an example of a chemoautotroph Hydrogen, Sulfur, and Nitrifying bacteria, some archaea
Oxygen is essential for these organisms Obligate Aerobes
Oxygen kills these organisms Obligate Anaerobes
Four toxic forms of oxygen Singlet, Superoxide radicals, Peroxide anion, Hydroxyl radical
All cells recycle nitrogen from... Amino acids and nucleotides
The only organisms on the planet that can fix nitrogen are... bacteria (not all bacteria)
Fastidious organisms need to acquire many of these from other organisms Growth Factors
Effect of high temperature on membranes of cells and organelles membranes become too fluid
Effect of low temperature on membranes of cells and organelles membranes become rigid and fragile
grow best in a narrow range around neutral pH Neutrophiles
grow best in acidic habitats Acidophiles
live in alkaline soils and water Alkalinophiles
Like high solute concentrations Facultative halophiles
Require high solute concentrations Obligate halophiles
Live under extreme pressure exerted by hydrostatic pressure of depth of water Barophiles
Nutrient media that contains a variety of highly variable ingredients without an exact chemical formula, including nutrient broth, blood agar, chocolate agar, media including yeast/meat extract (cells), peptone (protein), digests Complex or undefined media
Media composed of precise amounts of pure chemicals where each batch is identical. Includes glucose (CHO), salts(P, S, N), water. Defined media
Any organism that has a complex nutritional requirement Fastidious media
Type of media that inhibits the growth of unwanted organisms, only allowing sought after organisms to grown Selective media (it SELECTS only certain organisms to grow on it)
Type of media containing substances that bacteria are able to change in a recognizable way Differential (you can see a DIFFERENce between organisms that grow on it)
MacConkey agar contains Crystal Violet, which inhibits Gram+ bacteria, therefore isolating Gram- bacteria. This is an example of what kind of media? Selective
Blood agar is a type of media that contains RBC's that will be hemolyized by some bacteria, so you will see a clear halo around growth. What type of media is this? Differential
MacConkey agar contains pH indicator that identifies bacteria that produce acid. What kind of media is it? Differential
A smaller tube that is inverted in test tube media to trap any gas that might be produced Durham tube
Organisms that require a high amount of CO2 to survive Capnophiles
Type of culture where certain nutrient sources are chosen because few microbes can use that nutrient besides the one you want Enrichment Culture
List 3 ways you can preserve a culture Refrigeration (short term), Deep-freezing (store for years, but add glycerol to prevent lysis), Lyophilization (freeze drying for decades)
Method of cell division where one cell divides into two, done by prokaryotic cells Binary Fission
Time required for a bacterial cell to grow and divide Generation time (aka doubling time)
What formula determines exponential growth over time? (original # of cells) x 2^(# of divisions)
What type of graph has base-10 exponential values on the y-axis to show exponential growth as a line? Log or semi-log scale
The predictable fashion in which populations of cells grow follow a pattern called... Growth Curve
Term meaning the set of controlled chemical reactions within cells Metabolism
In this phase of microbial populations, the number of cells doesn't increase as cells prepare for growth Lag
Compounds that are required for growth that are produced through the log phase are called Primary metabolites
In this phase of microbial populations, there is exponential growth with microbes doubling each generation Log phase
Compounds used to enhance survival and antibiotics that are synthesized at the end of the log phase and through the first part of the stationary phase Secondary metabolites
Phase when the total number of viable cells decrease, which is exponential but much slower than growth Death phase
Phase when overall population remains relatively stable as cells exhaust nutrients and new cells use metabolites to continue replication Stationary phase
Continuous exponential growth can be maintained by use of a ... Chemostat that continuously drips in fresh nutrients and releases the same amount of waste product
Method of microbial cell count that can determine the total number of cells, living and dead, including microscopic or counting instruments Direct cell count
Method of direct cell count that detects changes in electrical resistance as sample in liquid passes through counting orifice Coulter counter
Method of direct cell count that measures scattered laser light as sample in liquid passes through counting orfice flow cytometer
Used to quantify living, multiplying cells Valuable in monitoring bacterial growth Often used when cell counts are too low for other methods, include Plate counts, Membrane filtration, Most probable numbers Viable cell count
Method for estimating microbial numbers by transferring 1 mL of undiluted microbes into 1 1:10 tube then another into a 1:100 tube, and inoculating 1 mL into 5 tubes each and using a posted ratio index Most Probable Number (ie, 4:2:1 means 4/5 from the undiluted, 2/5 of the 1:10, and 1/5 of the 1:100 tubes were positive for growth, and the 4:2:1 ratio correlates to an MPN index)
Give 3 ways of measuring microbial reproduction Metabolic activity (pH, gas/Durham tube, luciferase), weight (centrifuge), and turbidity (spectrophotometer) are indirect. Genetic methods isolate DNA of unculturable prokaryotes.
Organisms use a variety of these chemicals to meet their energy needs and to build organic molecules and cellular structures nutrients
Organisms that utilize inorganic source of carbon (CO2) to "feed themselves" autotrophs
Organisms that catabolize reduced organic molecules that they acquire from other organisms heterotrophs
Organisms that acquire energy from redox reactions involving inorganic and organic chemicals (meaning they get their energy from stuff) chemotrophs
Organisms that use light as their energy source phototrophs
Name some photoautotrophs Plants, algae, some protozoa
Name some chemoheterotrophs animals, fungi, some protozoa
a nutrient that interrupts metabolism by its absence limiting nutrient
Heterotrophs acquire electrons from the same organic molecules that provide them carbon and are called... organotrophs
Autotrophs acquire electrons or hydrogen from inorganic molecules and are called... lithotrophs
Oxygen is essential for these microbes obligate aerobes
Oxygen is deadly for these microbes obligate anaerobes
Four toxic forms of oxygen Singlet oxygen, superoxide radical, peroxide anion, hydroxyl radical
What breaks down peroxide without forming oxygen? peroxidase
What breaks down superoxide radical? superoxide dismutase
What breaks down peroxide and forms oxygen? catalase
Besides enzymes, what else can aerobes use to protect themselves against toxic oxygen products? antioxidants like vitamins C and E
What types of microbes have catalase? The ones that want O2. Obligate aerobes, facultative anaerobes, and microaerophiles
What types of microbes don't have catalase? The ones that don't want or don't care about O2. Obligate anaerobes, aerotolerant anaerobes
What types of microbes have SOD (superoxide dismutase) Everything but obligate anaerobes.
This nutrient makes up about 14% of microbial cells and is often a growth-limiting nutrient Nitrogen
Cyanobacteria Rhizobium reduce nitrogen gas to ammonia (NH3) in a process called... nitrogen fixation
Elements required in very small amounts are called... trace elements
Organisms that are not lithotrophic photoautotrophs require organic chemicals that they cannot synthesize. These chemicals are called... Growth factors, like vitamins (which constitute all or part of many coenzymes)
what temperatures are better for hydrogen bonds? Low. At high, proteins will denature
Temperature range terms Minimum growth temp, optimum growth temp, maximum growth temp
Grow best at temps below 15-C Psychrophiles
Grow best at temps from 20-40-C Mesophiles
Mesophiles that can survive at higher temps for a short period of time Thermoduric organisms
Grow best at temps over 45-C Thermophiles
Grow best at temps over 80-C hyperthermophiles
Grow best in acidic pH acidophiles
Grow best in neutral pH 6.5-7.5 neutrophiles
Grow best in alkaline pH alkalinophiles
pressure exerted on a semipermeable membrane osmotic pressure
comparably higher levels of solute in a solution hypertonic
comparably lower levels of solute in a solution hypotonic
Shriveling of cytoplasm crenation
microbes adapted to growth under high osmotic pressure obligate halophiles
microbes adapted to tolerate high salt concentration but don't prefer it facultative halophiles
Organisms that live under extreme pressure barophiles
Relationship where one organism harms or kills another antagonistic
Beneficial relationship where both receive benefit better than if either lived separate Synergistic
Beneficial relationship where organisms live so closely that they become interdependent and rarely or never live separately symbiotic
complex relationships among numerous microbes attached to surfaces biofilm
Biofilms often form as a result of a process in which microbes respond to the density of nearby microbes Quorum Sensing
Term meaning cultivate microbes AND the microorganisms that are cultivated culture
term meaning sample inoculum
term meaning collection of nutrients for growing microbes medium
Liquid media broth
visible cultures colonies
Inocula taken from non clinical sources environmental specimens
Inocula taken from patients Clinical specimens
Created by: jenissing