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CH unit III

Allah Arabic word for God.
Cenobitical Life More common form of monasticism, called the common life; that is, monastic life lived in community
Diocese A territorial division of the Church, adapted from the Roman Empire
Ecumenical Patriarch Title adopted by the Patriarch of Constantinople
The Hajj Pilgrimage to Mecca required of all Muslims faithful once during their lifetime
The Hejira Arabic for “flight”. The flight of Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina on Friday, July 16, 622. Marks year 1 in the Islamic (A.H.) calendar
Hermit One who, for religious motives, has retired into solidary life, especially one of the early Christian recluses. Derived from the Greek word eremia, meaning “desert”, it is also known as eremitical life
Huns A powerful monadic people of unknown ethnic origin who invaded Europe ca. 375
Islam Arabic for “submission”, the faith of the prophet Muhammad, it traces its roots back to Abraham, Hagar, and Ishmael
Jihad Holy war waged by Muslims in the name of religion. Muslim men who die in a jihad are believed to go straight to Heaven
Jizya Tax Placed upon Jews and Christians under Muslim rule. It allowed them to keep their religious laws, and retain the right to practice their own religion
Kaaba Arabic for “square building”, this large black stone is the main focus of the pilgrimage to Mecca, which every Muslim is required to take at least once in his lifetime. Housed inside is a square building that Muslims believe Abraham built
Koran Arabic for “recitation”, this is the holy book of the Muslim faith, written by Muhammad, and containing all of the writings that Muhammad claimed he was told by the archangel Gabriel under God’s direction
Laus Dei Latin for “praise of God, in Benedictince life it referred to the four hours of the day spent in communal prayer. Alternatively called opus Dei (work of God)
Lectio Divina Reading and meditation on Scripture
Monasticism A way of life characterized by asceticism and self-denial lived more or less in seclusion from the world and under fixed rule and vows. Monastic communities withdraw from the affairs of the world in order to seek God through asceticism and prayer
Nuncio Personal ambassador of the pope.
Opus Dei Alternative name for laus Dei.
Ora Et Labora Benedictine motto meaning “pray and work”
Ramadan The holy month of Islam believed to be the time when the Koran was given to Muhammad. Celebrated in the ninth lunar months of each year, a strict fast is observed from sunrise to sunset
Scriptorium Large room in a monastery dedicated to the copying and maintaining of texts
Servus Servorum Dei Latin for “servant of the servants of God”, this title was adopted by Pope St. Gregory the Great
The Shahada The first pillar and creedal statement of Islam
Vow A solemn promise made voluntary by a person of reason, to practice a virtue of perform a specific good deed in order to accomplish a future good which is better than its contrary
Boniface (Bona Facere) Latin for “doer of good” and the name given to St. Boniface, the missionary to Germany who set the stage for a radical reshaping of the heart of Europe.
Canterbury The most important episcopal see in England in the sixth century and the site of St. Augustine’s mission to England.
Glagolithic Script Based on the Greek alphabet, it was developed by St. Cyril to aid in his mission to the Slavic peoples.
Mozárabs Spanish people who chose to live under Arab rule after the Muslim invasion of Spain in 711.
Pallium A sacred vestment symbolic of the fullness of episcopal authority, worn by popes and archbishops. It is circular, one inch in width with six small crosses.
Patrons of Europe Title given by Pope John Paul II in 1980 to Sts. Cyril and Methodius were responsible for the conversions of all of Moravia and other Slavic territories. They used Slavic in the liturgy and translated the Bible into Slavic to reach more people.
Venerable This title refers to either a particular state in the process of canonization or to a person’s holy life, as in the case of St. Bede.
Wata “Oak of Thor,” the sacred tree of the pagans of Hesse cut down by St. Boniface.
Caesaropapism system in which the temoral ruler extends his own poweres to ecclesiastical and theological maters. Such emperoros appointed bishops and the Eastern Patriarch, directed the development of liturgical practices, and even aided the recruiment of monks.
Codex Justinianus Complied under Emperor Jusinian I, it was the collection and systemization of all Roman law as it had developed from his predecessors put together for legal uniformity throughout the empire. basis for canon law as well as civil law throughout Europe.
Council of Hiereria A local (non-ecumenical) council convened by Counstantine V to condemn the use of icons.
Dulia and Latria Two types of veneration whose distinction was drawn at the seventh Council of Nicaea. An icon may be venerated through acts of respect and honor, called dulia, but God alone is worthy of absolute adoration, known in Greek as latria.
Filioque Latin meaning “and the Son,” this was first added to the Third Council of Toledo (589) to the Nicene- Constatinopolitan Creed to clarify that the Holy Spirit porceeded from both the Father and the Son.
Great Schism The final split between the eastern and the western Churches in the year 1054.
Hagia Sophia Most famous example of Byzantine architecture, it was built under Justinian I and is considered one of the most perfect buildings in the world.
Icon A flat, two- dimensional picture of Christ, the Virigin Mary, or one of the saints which is used as an aid for Chrisitan acts of piety. When rightly understood, by virtue of what is represented, is seen as in invitation to prayer.
Iconoclasm Thoughts or deeds of an iconoclast. Refers to periods in history when a large number of iconoclasts were present.
Iconophile Greek for “lover of icons,” this term refers to those who defend and promote the proper use of icons in Christian worship.
Monophysitism Heresy claiming that there is only one nature in Christ and that His human nature is “incorporated” into the Divine Nature.
Papal States Lands around Rome, Italy, won by Pepin on behalf and given to the papacy, making the pope a sovereign as well as spiritual leader. The Papal States were ruled by the pope from 754 to 1870.
Created by: swimmingninja42
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