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AR/FE/LV

Determinants of airway resistance/forced expirations/lung volumes-CJ- 1/10/13

QuestionAnswer
Two main forces that oppose air movement Compliance and frictional resistance
What is the predominant resistance to airway flow? Airway resistance (80%)
Sources of viscous resistance Lung and chest wall as well as diaphragm and abdomen
Resistance is measured by measuring the Pressure drop
Equation for measuring resistance R= Change in pressure/Flow
Three types of air flow through airways Laminar, turbulent, transitional
Laminar flow in the lungs is seen in the Terminal bronchioles
Turbulent flow in the respiratory system is seen in the Trachea
Relationship between Radius and Resistance in laminar flow Resistance is inversely proportional to radius^4
Relationship between radius and length in laminar flow Resistance is inversely proportional to length
An increase in velocity does what to the chance of turbulent flow Increases
An increase in diameter does what to the chance of turbulent flow Increases
An increase in density does what to the chance of turbulent flow Increases
An increase in viscosity does what to the chance of turbulent flow Decreases
The main site of airway resistance in The medium-sized bronchi
Define radial traction As alveoli expand, they exert tension on airways and pull them open
What factors affect smooth muscle tone and affect airway resistance? Irritants, parasympathetic tone, and B2 stimulants
What increases airways resistance in Chronic bronchitis Hyper secretions of mucus
What increases airway resistance in asthma Increase in smooth muscle ton due to hypersensitivity
What increases airways resistance in emphysema Decreased radial traction and decreased diameter
Forced expiration changes the main site of resistance to Peripheral airways because they are compressed
Define transairway pressure Pressure difference across the airway wall
What determines airway patency Transairway pressure
During inspiration and passive expiration, the transaiway pressure is Positive
When you squeeze the lungs, the pleural pressure becomes Positive
What lung volumes cannot be measured by spirometry? Functional residual capacity, residual volume and total lung capacity
Obstructive disorders present with Increased airway resistance and large lung volumes
Restrictive disorders present with Normal/decreased airway resistance and small lung volumes
FEV1 Volume exhaled in 1st second
FVC Total volume exhaled
Normal FEV:FVC .8
Obstructive FEV:FVC ratio Less than .8
Restrictive FEV:FVC ratio Greater than or equal to .8
What factors determine FEV1 Lung volume, Airway collapse, Airway resistance
Forced expiratory flow rate in obstructive disorders is Lower than 3.5
Forced expiratory flow rate in restrictive disorders is Greater than 3.5
Flow-volume curve for obstructive disorders presents with a "Scooped out" area
An interthoracic airway obstruction flow-volume curve will be Flattened on the top (expiration)
An extrathoracic airway obstruction flow-volume curve will be Flattened on the bottom (inspiration)
A fixed obstruction flow-volume curve will be Flattened in both expiration and inspiration
Created by: mcasto