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The vocab for Chapter 6 of Blij's Human Geography book

Language A set of sounds, combination of sounds, and symbols used for communicating.
Culture The sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior patterns shared and transmitted by the member of a society. This is anthropologist Ralph Linton’s definition; hundreds of others exist.
Mutual Intelligibility The ability of two people to understand each other when speaking.
Standard Language The variant of a language that a country’s political and intellectual elite seek to promote as the norm for use in schools, government, the media, and other aspects of public life.
Dialects Local or regional characteristics of a language. While accent refers to the pronunciation differences of a standard language, a dialect, in addition to pronunciation variation, has distinctive grammar and vocabulary.
Dialect Chains A set of contiguous dialects in which the dialects nearest to each other at any place in the chain are most closely related.
Isogloss A geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic feature occurs.
Language Family Group of languages with a shared but family distant origin.
Subfamilies (Language) Divisions within a language family where the commonalities are more definite and the origin is more recent.
Sound Shift Slight change in a word across languages within a subfamily or through a language family from the present backward toward its origin.
Proto-Indo-European (Language) Linguistic hypothesis proposing the existence of an ancestral Indo-European language.
Backward Reconstruction The tracking of sound shifts ”backward” toward the original language.
Extinct Language Language without any native speakers.
Deep Reconstruction Technique using the vocabulary of an extinct language to re-create the language that proceeded the extinct language.
Nostratic (language) Language believed to be the ancestral language not only of Proto-Indo-European, but also of the Kartvelian languages of the southern Caucasus region, the Uralic-Altaic languages, the Dravidian languages of India, and the Afro- Asiatic language family.
Language Divergence A process suggested by German linguist August Schleicher whereby new languages are formed when a language breaks into dialects due to a lack of spatial interaction among speakers of the language.
Language Convergence The collapsing of two languages into one resulting from the consistent spatial interaction of peoples with different languages; the opposite of language divergence.
Renfrew Hypothesis Hypothesis by Colin Renfrew where he proposed that 3 areas in the 1st agricultural hearth, the Fertile Crescent, gave rise to 3 language families: Europe’s Indo-European languages; North African and Arabian languages; & the languages in present-day Iran.
Conquest Theory One major theory of how Proto-Indo-European diffused into Europe which holds that the early speakers of Proto-Indo-European spread westward on horseback.
Dispersal Hypothesis Hypothesis which holds that the Indo-European were first carried eastward into Southwest Asia, next around the Caspian Sea, and then across the Russian-Ukrainian plains and on into the Balkans.
Romance Languages Languages (French, Spanish, Italian, Romanian, and Portuguese) that lie in the areas that were once controlled by the Roman Empire but were not subsequently overwhelmed.
Germanic Languages Languages (English, German, Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish) that reflect the expansion of peoples out of Northern Europe to the west and south.
Slavic Languages Languages (Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Ukrainian, Slovenian, Serbo-Croatian, and Bulgarian) that developed as Slavic people migrated from a base in present-day Ukraine close to 2000 years ago.
Lingua Franca Today it refers to a “common language,” a language used among speakers of different languages for the purposes of trade and commerce.
Pidgin Languages When parts of two or more languages are combined in a simplified structure and vocabulary.
Creole Language A language that began as a pidgin language but was later adopted as the mother tongue by a people in place of the mother tongue.
Monolingual States Countries in which only one language is spoken.
Multilingual States Countries in which more one language is spoken.
Official Language In multilingual countries the language selected, often by the educated and politically powerful elite, to promote internal cohesion; usually the language of the courts and government.
Global Language The language used most commonly around the world; defined on the basis of either the number of speakers of the language, of prevalence of use in commerce and trade.
Place The uniqueness of a location.
Toponym Place name.
Created by: mrsabbymalik
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