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APWH Chapter 14

Chapter 14 APWH

What is 14 unit about? globalization, modern societies, European dominance in world affairs
Silver from the new world was traded into? Asian markets
What religion returns to dominance as a true world religion? Christianity
There was a great expansion of? Russia, China, and Ottoman Empire
Globalization was by what country? Europe
Who brought Hindus and Muslims together? Mughal
What Empire became a rebirth of the older Muslim Empire? Ottoman Empire
_____ China doubled in Chapter 14? Qing
Why was maritime expansion needed? Because the conquered territories lay an ocean away from the imperial heartland, rather than adjacent to it
What countries were on the Atlantic rim of Europe? Portugal, Spain, Britain, and France
What did people on the Atlantic rim of Europe understand more about? winds and currents much different from monsoon winds in the Indian ocean
Why did Europeans explore, three reasons? God, glory, and gold
Why was God one of the reasons the Europeans explored? They needed to convert
Why did the Europeans explore for glory? They felt the need to be famous
What gave Europeans an advantage over natives? Advanced seafaring technology, horses
Where did Spaniards explore? In Caribbean, then on to Aztec and Inca empires
Where did Portuguese explore? Brazil
Where did British, French, and Dutch explore? colonies in North America
By what time did the Europeans control most of the Americas? mid 19th century
Why did European merchant class seek direct access to Asian wealth? The merchant class wanted to avoid the reliance on Muslim middlemen that they found so distasteful.
Pre- Columbian Western Hemisphere had a population of? 60 million to 80 million
Natives had no immunity to what? Old World diseases
Who brought European and African diseases? Europeans
Mortality rate of up to 90 percent among who? Native American population
During the Great Dying Native American population nearly vanished, where at? The Caribbean
In Central Mexico population done what? Dropped from 10 million to 20 million to around 1 million by 1650
As pop sharply diminished in Americas, what did the "Great Dying" create? Created an acute labor shortage, made room for immigrant newcomers
immigrant newcomers consisted of who? colonizers and enslaved Africans
The silver mines in Mexico and Peru allowed the Spanish conquerors and other Europeans to buy massive amounts of what highly valuable commodities? Chinese tea, silk, and porcelain
What was the Columbian Exchange? enormous network of communication, migration, trade, the spread of disease, and the transfer of plants and animals between the Old and New Worlds
The Columbian Exchange was an interacting Atlantic World connecting how many continents? four
What things was transferred from the Old World to the New World? horses, disease, and African slaves
What things was transferred from the New World to the Old World? tobacco, corn, potatoes, tomatoes
Explain the theory of mercantilism? This view held that European countries economic interests were best served by encouraging exports and accumulating silver and gold which represented prosperity.
Colonies in the New World provided their mother countries with what? great quantities of bullion (gold and silver bars).
What three kinds of economy were established by the new colonial societies among Native American cultures? Settler-dominated agriculture, slave-based plantations, ranching or mining
What was the economic foundation of colonial rule in Mexico and Peru? commercial agriculture; silver and gold mining
Who provided the labor in Mexico and Peru? forced labor and wage labor by native peoples
What does indigenous people mean? People who where there in the first place
How did the economic base in Mexico and Peru, shape the kinds of societies that arose there? A distinctive social order grew up
The distinctive social order that grew in Mexico and Peru replicated who? The Spanish hierarchy while accommodating the racially and culturally different Indians and Africans, as well as growing numbers
How did the economic base in Mexico and Peru, shape the kinds of societies that arose there? A distinctive social order grew up
The distinctive social order that grew in Mexico and Peru replicated who? The Spanish hierarchy while accommodating the racially and culturally different Indians and Africans, as well as growing numbers of racially mixed people
The society of Mexico and Peru was dominated by? Europeans
Who were the peninsulares? Spanish born peoples
Who were the creoles? Spaniards born in the Americas
Who were the Mestizos? Mixed race populations(Product of unions between Spanish men and Indian women)
Who were the Mulattoes? the product of Portuguese-African unions
Who were the Indians? Indigenous peoples
When confronted with Catholicism, Native Americans'religious beliefs in Mesoamerica and Peru, the Christian saints blended easily with? Specialized indigenous gods, while belief in magic, folk medicine, and communion with the dead remained strong
Many of the Native Americans, when confronted with Catholicism, gravitated toward what? Toward the world of their conqueror, learned Spanish, and converted to Christianity
What was produced in Brazil and the Caribbean? sugar
In the colonies where sugar was produced, it was very hard labor, and it was called? first modern industry
Why did the people in the sugar colonies, have to bring Africans slaves over? Natives were killed by disease, or fled
Sugar colonies and slavery was mainly run by? British, French, and Portuguese
The slave based system in the sugar colonies was based on? southern US model
There was more racial mixing in South and Central America, why? Because British women came along with their husbands instead of young men traveling for adventure and wealth
Because the British were the last of the European powers to establish a colonial presence in the Americas, they found, what? only the dregs were left
Whose land was regarded as the unpromising leftovers of the New World? British
British, unlike Spanish and Portuguese, were coming over to the Americas for what? Permanent settlements to get away from homeland oppression
Who came over to the Americas for short-term exploitations to make them rich? Spain and Portugal
Who brought their families and did not mix with slaves and natives? British
Spain and Portugal didn't bring over their families to the Americas like the British, but instead? Were young single men looking to mingle
Why did the British have higher literacy rates than the Spanish/Portuguese colonies? Protestant empire had a great emphasis on reading the Bible for oneself, which led to a greater mass literacy rate in Latin America, whereas the Catholic Church was more focused on converting natives to Christianity
Britain didn't impose an elaborate bureaucracy like? Spain
In what century was the British civil war? 17th century
What distracted the government from involvement in the colonies? The British civil war
A small Russian state centered where, began to emerge ca.? Moscow, 1500
Over three centuries after Moscow conquered many cities, what happened? Grew into a massive empire
Russian early expansion into the grasslands to south and east was for? security against nomads expansion into Siberia, was a matter of opportunity, not threat
What is Russification? Russians are well known for assimilating conquered people
who had to take and oath of loyalty to the Russian ruler? Conquered people
Russians placed intermittent pressure on conquered people, to do what? convert to Christianity
In the Russian Empire, devastating epidemics done what? Killed large populations
In the Russian Empire there was a loss of hunting grounds and pasturelands for the nomads because of who and what did it do? Because of the Russian agricultural settlers, disrupted the local economy and left local populations dependent on Russian markets
Who were the Cossacks? bands of fiercely independent warriors consisting of peasants who had escaped serfdom as well as criminals and other adventurers
What did the Cossacks help do? Helped expand Russia into Siberia
In the Russia empire the people they conquered were, opposed to Europeans colonizing in the Americas? neighbors that they had interacted with before
Through conquest, settlement, exploitation, religious conversion, and feelings of superiority, Russians recognized and distinguished themselves among who? Their conquered and incorporated peoples
Chinese vastly enlarged their? Territorial size of their country
The Chinese incorporated what kinds of people into their country? non-Chinese
The Chinese had a conquest to the north and west, which was for how long? 80 years
What provided security for the huge Chinese region? A great military
Conquered regions were ruled separately from the rest of China through a new office called? the Court of Colonial Affairs
The Chinese made active use, like other colonial powers, of? notables
Who didn't assimilate local people into Chinese culture? Chinese and Qing officials
Chinese and Qing officials showed considerable respect for? the Mongolian, Tibetan, and Muslim cultures of the region
Chinese conquests, together with the expansion of the Russian Empire, done what? transformed Central Asia
Eurasia, before Russian and Chinese rule had been the cosmopolitan crossroads, hosting what trade network? The Silk Roads
Eurasia before Russian and Chinese rule, welcomed what religions? All of the major world religions
Eurasia before Russian and Chinese rule, generated an enduring encounter with? between the nomads of the stepped and farmers of settled agricultural regions
After Chinese and Russian rule, Eurasia land based commerce took a back seat to? oceanic trade
After Chinese and Roman rule, Nomads no longer were able to herd their animals freely so they done what? They fled to urban areas were many were reduced to begging
Akbar realized Hindus made up majority of pop of Mughal Empire so what did he do? Let them keep their faith
Aurangzeb forbade what? Hindu practice of sat, banned music and dance at the court, as well as gambling, drinking prostitution, and narcotics
What was the century long conflict between the Ottoman and the Safavids? Sunni vs Shia
In 1453, Constantinople fell to who? Muslim Turks
Muslim Turks renamed Constantinople, what? Istanbul
How were taxes under the Ottoman rule? Lighter and oppression was less pronounced
In the Ottoman empire, Christian communities were granted what? considerable autonomy in regulating their internal social, religious, educational, and charitable affairs
Some Christians became part of the Ottoman _____, without converting to Muslim. elite
Balkan Christian communities were required to do what? hand over a quota of young boys who were then removed from their families
After the boys in the Balkan communities where taken away what did they have to do? required to learn Turkish, usually converted to Islam, and trained for the civil administration or military service in elite Janissary units
What is Jizya? special tax levied on non Muslims in Islamic states
What does sati mean? the act if an Indian widow following her husband to death by throwing herself upon the ashes
What is devshirme? The tribute of coy children that the Ottoman Turks levied from their Christian subjects in the Balkans
Created by: 1213brookisaacs