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Chapter 14 1450-1750

Chapter 14: Empires and Encounters

What years are known as the Early Modern Era? 1450-1750
What big things happened durning the Early Modern Era? Globalisation, modern societies, and the presence of European dominance in world affairs.
What is one example of globalisation in the Early modern Era? Silver from the New World was traded into Asian markets.
What exchange took place in the Early Modern Era? The Columbian Exchange.
What religion took dominance as the true world religion during the Early Modern Era? Christianity
What empires greatly expanded during the Early Modern Era? Russia, China, and the Ottoman Empire.
What else could this period be called and why? The Late Agrarian Era because Africa and Asia were still agriculture and the change was less visible.
European Empires... expanded greatly.
The Russian empire... began and grew.
Qing China... doubled.
What empire brought Hindus and Muslims together? Mughal
Why was maritime expansion needed? Because the conquered territories lay an ocean away from the imperial heartland.
What countries were closer to the Americas than their Asian competitors? Portugal, Spain, Britain, and France.
How did the Europeans travel so easy to the Americas? They understood winds and currents on the ocean, much like the traders who traveled on the Indian oceans using the monsoons.
Why did European's explore? God, glory, and gold.
Explain the the 3 G's. God- need to convert Glory- need to be famous Gold- make lots of money
Besides the "3 G's", why else did Europeans explore? Their rivalries with other countries led to the need to grow. Plus they had advanced seafaring technology.
Where did the Spaniards explore? The Caribbean and then on to the Aztec and Inca empires.
Where did the Portuguese explore? Brazil
Who had colonies in North America? The British, French, and the Dutch.
By the mid-nineteenth century, who controlled most of the Americas? The Europeans.
Why did the European merchant class want direct access to Asian wealth? They wanted to avoid the reliance on Muslim middlemen.
Before the Colombian era, the Western Hemisphere had a population of about... 60-80 million.
When the natives were exposed to European and African diseases, why did they die off so quickly? They had no immunities to these diseases.
Due to the morality rate of about 90 percent among Native American populations, what native population nearly vanished? The Caribbean.
Central Mexico had a population drop from 10-20 million to..... 1 million by 1650.
What was the Great Dying? A huge population drop in the Americas.
What did the Great Dying create in the Americas? A labor shortage and it made room for immigrant newcomers.
Who were the newcomers in the Americas? Colonizers and enslaved Africans.
Why did the colonizers use African slaves? The Great Dying caused a labor shortage so they needed the slaves to work for them.
Why didn't the colonizers not use the Native's as their labor source? Because they often escaped.
Since the Spanish got rich from the mines in the Americas, what could they buy? Chinese tea, silk, and porcelain.
What was the Colombian Exchange? The enormous network of communication, migration, trade, the spread of disease, and the transfer of plants and animals.
The Colombian Exchange connected... four continents.
What did the old world bring to the new world? Horses, diseases, and African slaves.
What did the new world give to the old world? Tobacco, corn, potatoes, and tomatoes.
What is mercantilism? The view held that European countries' economic interests were best served by encouraging exports and accumulation silver and gold which represented prosperity.
The colonies provided their mother countries with what? Bullion.
What is bullion? Gold and silver bars.
What three kinds of economy were established by the new colonial societies among Native American cultures? Settler-dominated agriculture, slave-based plantations, and ranching or mining.
What was the economic foundation of colonial rule in Mexico and Peru? Commercial agriculture and silver/gold mining.
Who provided the labor in Mexico and Peru? Forced labor and wage labor by native peoples.
This economic base in Mexico and Peru caused for a distinctive _____ ____ to grow up. social order
This social order was similar to the _______ _______. Spanish hierarchy.
Although the social order that grew up in the Americas was like the Spanish hierarchy it accommodated the... racially and culturally different Indians and Africans, as well as the racially mixed people.
Who was at the top of this society? The Europeans. DUH
The peninsulares, at the top of the social hierarchy, were the... Spanish born peoples.
The creoles, below the peninsulares, were the... Spaniards born in the Americas.
The mestizo, below the creoles, were the... product of the unions between Spanish men and Indian women.
The mulattoes, below the mestizos, were the... product of Portuguese-African unions.
The Indians, below the mulattoes, were the... indigenous peoples and were at the bottom of the social hierarchy.
What religion did the Spanish bring to the Americas? Catholicism.
What were the religious beliefs in Mesoamerica and Peru before Catholicism? They worshiped gods, believed in magic, folk medicine, and having communion with the dead.
What happened to the Native Americans' religious beliefs when confronted with Catholicism? The Christian saints blended in easily. Many of the Natives converted to Christianity and learned Spanish.
Where was sugar produced in the Americas? Brazil and the Caribbean.
Who worked the sugar industry? The African slaves because the natives were killed by disease or fled.
What was called the "first modern industry"? The sugar producing industry.
Who ran these colonies of sugar? The British, French, and Portuguese.
The slave system used in the sugar colonies was based on... the southern US slave system.
Why did more racial mixing occur in South and Central America? Because British women came along with their husbands instead of young men traveling for adventure and wealth.
Who were the last of the European powers to establish a colonial presence in the Americas? The British
When the British got to the Americas, what did they describe it as? They said "only the dregs were left."
The lands the British required in the New World were regarded as... unpromising leftovers.
Why did the British come to the New World? To escape homeland oppression.
Why did Spain and Portugal come to the New World? For short-term exploitations to make them rich.
Out of the British, the Spaniards, and the Portuguese, which one of them came to America and then mixed with the Natives? The British brought their families and did not mix with slaves or natives. The Spaniards and Portuguese were young and single.
Why did the British colonies have high literacy rates? The Protestants emphasized on reading the Bible.
Why did the Spanish/Portuguese colonies not have high literacy rates? The Catholic Church was more focused on converting the natives to Christianity than reading the Bible for oneself.
Why were the British colonies more independent than the Spanish colonies? Britain didn't impose an elaborate bureaucracy like Spain.
How did British colonies become so independent in the seventeenth century? The British civil war distracted the government from being involved with the colonies.
When did the Russian Empire start to emerge? Around 1500.
Where did the Russian Empire start to emerge? Around Moscow.
How did the Russian state grow into a massive empire? Moscow began to conquer neighboring cities and expanded into the grasslands of the south and east and into Siberia.
How long did the Russian expansion occur? Over three centuries.
Why did the Russian Empire expand into Siberia? For furs.
Why did the Russian Empire expand in the grasslands? For security against nomads.
What does "Russification" mean? The Russians were well known for assimilating conquered people and transforming their lives.
The Russians conquered people had to do what, once conquered? They had to take an oath of loyalty to the Russian ruler, pay tribute, and they were pressured to convert to Christianity.
What was some negative sides of Russian expansion? Devastating epidemics killed large populations.
What was a negative side of Russian expansion for the nomads? They lost their hunting grounds and pasture lands to Russian settlers.
This loss of hunting grounds and pasture lands to Russian settlers caused what? It disrupted the local economy and left local population dependent on Russian markets.
Who were the Cossacks? Bands of fiercely independent warriors consisting of peasants who had escaped serfdom as well as criminals and other adventurers.
How did the Cossacks help Russia? They helped expand into Siberia.
How did the Russians acquire their empire? Through conquest, settlement, exploration, religious conversion, and feelings of superiority.
Both the Russians and the West Europeans __________ and ____________ themselves among their...... recognized, distinguished, conquered and incorporated peoples.
The Russians conquered... their neighbors that they had interacted with before.
The Western Europeans conquered... the colonies in the Americas.
The Chinese vastly enlarged the territorial size of the country and incorporated... a number of non-Chinese people.
During the 17th and 18th centuries, for 80 years the Chinese... went on conquests towards the east and west.
How did the Chinese enforce security? Through great military effort.
What was the Court of Colonial Affairs? An office in the Chinese government that ruled conquered regions separately from the rest of China.
Like other colonial powers, the Chinese made... active use of local notables.
Chinese or Qing officials didn't seek to assimilate local people into Chinese culture, but instead... showed considerable respect for the Mongolian, Tibetan, and Muslim cultures of the region.
How was Eurasia's economy before Russian and Chinese rule? The region had been the cosmopolitan crossroads, hosting the Silk Road trade network.
How was Eurasia's economy after Russian and Chinese rule? They became backward and impoverished and their land-based commerce became oceanic trade.
How did Eurasia treat other peoples before Russian and Chinese rule? They welcomed all the major world religions.
How did the Qing Chinese treat the Mongolian's? The indebted Mongolian nobles lost their land to Chinese merchants and they were no longer able to herd their animals freely and fled to urban areas where many were reduced to begging.
How were the Mongolians and nomads treated before Chinese and Russian rule? They generated an enduring encounter between the nomads of the steppes and farmers of settled agricultural regions.
Two main, very different Mughal rulers were... Akbar and Aurangzeb.
How did Akbar rule the Mughal empire? He let Hindus keep their faith and incorporated many Hindus into the political-military elite of the empire.
How else did Akbar treat Hindus justly? He supported Hindu temples, imposed a policy of toleration retraining the more militantly Islamic ulama, removed the tax on non-Muslims, and promoted a religious cult.
What cult did Akbar create? One that incorporated Islam, Hindu, and Zoroastrianism.
Aurangzeb reversed... Akbar's policy of accommodation.
What all did Aurangzeb ban?? The Hindu practice of sati, music and dance at court, gambling, drinking, and narcotics.
Aurangzeb obviously did not not like Hindu's because he destroyed their _________. temples
Aurangzeb reinstated the... special tax on non-Muslims.
How did Aurangzeb enforce Islamic law? He posted "censors of public morals" to large cities.
The Sunni version of Islam was the... Ottoman Empire.
The Shia version of Islam was the... Safavid Empire.
The conflict between the Sunni and Shia Islams expressed... a deep and enduring division within the Islamic world.
Why was Byzantium no longer the "heir to the glory of Rome"? In 1453, Constantinople fell to the Muslim Turks and was renamed to Istanbul.
Constantinople, the Christian city, became the capital of the... Ottoman Empire.
Under Ottoman rule, the Christians experienced... lighter taxes and less oppression.
Under Ottoman rule, how could Christian communities be granted considerable autonomy? By regulating their internal social, religious, educational, and charitable affairs.
Who all became part of the Ottoman elite without converting to Islam? A number of Christians, Balkan landlords, Greek merchants, government officials, and high-ranking clergies.
How did Jewish refugees fleeing Christian persecution in Spain, benefit from Islamic rule? They liberated from their rule and found greater opportunity in the Ottoman Empire, where they became prominent in trade and banking circles.
What was devshirme? Balkan Christian communities had to hand over a quota of young boys, who were then removed from their families and were required to learn Turkish, usually convert to Islam, and train for either civil administration or military service Janissary units.
The Turkish empire represented an enormous threat to __________ in general. Christendom
What raised anew "the specter of a Muslim takeover of all of Europe"? The seizure of Constantinople, the conquest of the Balkans, Ottoman naval power in the Mediterranean, and the siege of Vienna in 1529 and 1683.
What was the outcome of the Ottoman Siege of Vienna in 1683? The last Ottoman incursion into the Austrian Empire was pushed back with French and Polish help.
The Ottoman Siege of Vienna in 1683 marked the end of a... serious Muslim threat to Christian Europe.
What was "jizya"? A special tax levied on non-Muslims in Islamic states.
The Mughal Empire was notable for abolishing the... jizya for a time.
What was "sati"? The act on an Indian widow following her husband to death by throwing herself on his funeral pyre.
Who was Mehmed II "the Conqueror"? The Ottoman sultan who was in charge of the army when the Turks conquered Constantinople.
What aspect of Ottoman society did many Europeans admire? The Ottomans' spirit of religious tolerance.
Created by: 1213RachelBlair