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Micro- Vessels

Microanatomy of Vessels and Hemodynamics- Brown/Ward

Functions of vascular system Inflammatory mediator, Body temperature regulator, Immunity, Hormone delivery, deliver/clear nutrients and waste
The distribution of oxygen around the body involves Diffusion and bulk flow
Diffusion takes place in Lungs and capillaries
Output of the right pump of the heart must equal Output of the left pump of the heart
Blood is oxygenated under what type of pressure Low pressure
Circulations in individual organs are in parallel with the heart. What is the exception? Liver
Tunica intima Endothelium and includes internal elastic lamina
Tunica media Smooth muscle, elastic fibers
Tunica adventitia Dense irregular connective tissue that can contain vasa vasorum and nervi vasorum
Three types of arteries from big to small Elastic, Muscular and Arterioles
3 layers of Blood vessels from inside out Tunica intima, Tunica media, Tunica adnvetitia (I miss Anna)
Sinusoidal capillaries are located in the Liver and spleen
Arteriosclerosis can cause damage to the Tunica intima which can cause Clots in blood since the TI prevents this
Trace the blood from from the heart Elastic arteries-muscular arteries-arterioles-capillaries-postcapillary venules-muscluar venules- large veins-heart
Elastic arteries are identifiable by Size and the large number of concentric elastic fibers in the tunica media
Muscular arteries are identifiable by well-defined internal elastic lamina and several layers of smooth muscle in the tunica media
Pericytes Capillary support cells
Three types of capillaries Continuous, Fenestrated, Sinusoidal
Fenestrated capillaries are found in Endocrine organs, GI, urinary filtration apparatus
Restinosis Proliferation of smooth muscle in the tunica media that can block the lumen
Aneurysm is due to weakness in the Tunica media
Damage to valves in veins can cause Varicose veins
Large veins are identifiable by Their size, irregular shape, thick tunica advetitia lying over the tunica media and occasionally by venous valves
Cardiac output is Left ventricular volume ejected per minute (~5)
Heart is the only tissue in the body that can Maximally extracts oxygen at rest
Because heart efficiency is at max, if you increase the heart rate, you must also increase Blood flow
Kidneys have large % of resting cardiac output but a low oxygen consumption. Explain Kidney filters the blood so it gets a large volume of blood to filter but not to actually use
Mean arterial pressure equals (1/3)x(sysotlic-diastolic) + DP
Pulse pressure for patient with a BP of 120/80 40
Compliance Change in volume for a given change of pressure. More compliant means more stretchy!
What does age do to compliance Decreases
Are veins more or less compliant than arteries More
Windkessel effect Arterial stretch during systole contributes to production of diastolic pressure
If you increase pressure difference, blood flow increases
If you increase resistance, blood flow decreases
Cardiac output equals MAP/TPR or SVxHR
Vascular resistance is inversely proportional to Radius^4
Resistance is proportional to Length
The main resistance to flow occurs in the Arterioles
Blood velocity is lowest in the Capillaries because they have the highest total cross-sectional area
Three patterns of blood flow Laminar, Turbulent and Single file
Laminar blood flow is found in Arteries, arterioles, venules, and veins
Turbulent blood flow is found in Ventricles and stenosed arteries
Single file blood flow is found in Capillaries
As blood viscosity increases, flood flow velocity Decreases
Turbulent blood flow, like bruits, cause Whooshing
Created by: mcasto