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Chapter 5 Languae

What is an Ethnologue ? One of the most authorative source of languages , 6,909 kanguages in total
What are some places that dont have literary tradition ? tribes, and isolated areas
The lack of literary tradition causes? Probmlems to document distribution of languages
Who chooses the offical language and where is it mostly spoken in a country ? The goverment and around the captial
What are the two main meanings of language in culture ? Peoples values and their artifacts
How is language diffused at first ? By migration of people
What does the global distribution of language is caused by what 2 process ? Interaction and isolation
English is the offical language in how many countries ? 57
The distribution of english came from the ? Colonies
How did english first diffused ? From west England to north america in the 17 century
What town did it start in ? Jamestown in plymouth 1607 and after NA defeated the english , english was assured
What countries did Brtian over take ? Ireland, South Asia, South Pacific, South Africa and made english the offical language
Who were the first inhabitants in Britosh Isles ? The celtics in 2,000 B.C and spoke celtic
What happened in AD 450 on the british isles ? The celtics were invaded and moved too scotland and wales
What were the 3 Germanic Tribes that invaded the Britsih iles ? Angles,Saxons, And Jutes which all spoke Englise
What was the bigges Germanic tribe ? The Angles
Where does our english come from ? The language spoken by the tribes
At some point in history what happened ? Everyone spoke the same Germanic language
What did the vikings do to england ? Were defted but stayed and changed the language
What happened when the Normans invaded in 1066 They changed the language because they spoke french,French being the offical language for 300 years
What happened after england lost control of normandy ? People when back to talking english making it the offical language in 1362 only upper class still spoke french
What is it called when speakers of two languages can understand each other ? Mutal Inteligeability
Words that are common come from where ? Fancy Words ? Germanic, Normandy
How is the distribution of dialects documented ? By the study of particular words
When people from one location goes to another what happens ? Varies the dialect of that language
How do english languages Vary ? By region
Who uses the standard language ? News casters because of the so many diffrent dialects
Where did the justes come from ? Northern Denmark
Wher did the Angles come from ? Southern Denamrk
Where did the saxons come from ? North western Germany
What are the Five major region dialects in England ? Northern, East Midland, West Midland, Southwestern, and southeastern
What are the 3 main region dialects ? Midland, Northern, Southern
How did the introduction of the dialect of the upper class come by ? By the printing press in 1476
What is the major diffrence North Americas English is diffrent than the U.K ? Isolation
How was our englished changed ? By immagrants from other countires coming and changing the dialect and adding words etc
What are 3 ways North America english varys from U.k's ? Vocab, Spelling, and Pronunctaion
Why is our vocab diffrent ? Because we encountred new objects we had to name
Why is our spelling diffrent ? Because Noah Webster made a type of english writing diffrent than the Uk which would make us more independent
Why is our pronociation diffrent ? Because the amount of intercation we had
What are some other reason we dont speak the same english ? Colonist that came did not speak proper english and did not come from upper class
What are the 3 areas that the settmlemnts can be grouped in / New England, Southeast, Middle Atlantic
New England ? Mostly inhabited by Puritans from South East England
Southeastern ? Half same from southeast england very diverse much low class
Middle Atlantic ? Quakers from the north of england and other countries like germaany most diverse
Words used relate to what ? Rural life, food, objects, from dail activites
Why id their a greater language idn rural areas ? Isolation ,daily acticites, food, objects
What encourages the adoption of some words in the country ? Mass media
What do they say for soda in NE and SW? Midwest and NW? Southerners ? Soda,pop,coke
Why do New england and Southern accent are unusaul ? Most prononcation came from middle atlantic states
Madrin is the most ? Spoken language in the world
English is the most? Spoken language in the Indo-European
How many Branches does Indo-European language have ? 8
What are the main Indo-European languages ? Germanic ,Romance, Baltic-solvic and Indo-Iranian
What are the 4 lesser Branches in Indo-european ? Almmenian,Greek,Celtic, and armeenian
What are the languages in the Germanic Branch ? German ,English , Icelandic,Dutch, Swedish
Why is english in the germanic Branch ? Because of the tribes that invaded england
Language has less what ? Diffrences and less old in the langugae
What group og the germanic branch does english fall in ? Western
What are the subgroups west germanic fall into ? High and low High is the basis fpr standard german language
What sub group of western germanic does english fall into ? Low
What are the four languages spoken in Scandaniva ? Swedish, Danish,Norwegian, and iclenadic
Indio-Irain group has two group which are ? West, Iranian and East, Indic
The indo-iranian branch has ? The most speakers
Indic-Iranian is mostly spoken in ? Indian, Pakistan and Bangladesh
What is the offical language in India ? Hindi and English but most diverse country with languages
The goverment of Indai is forced to do what ? To encourage the use of 22 languages
What is the only way you can wrie hindi ? in scrpit called Devanagaria
Where is the Iranian group spoken in / Iran and SW asia
What are the major languages used in the Iranain group ? Persian in Iran, Pashto in Afghanistan and Pakistan, and Kurdish in iran iraq and turkey
The Baltic-Slavic Branch is the what ? 2nd most spoken group with most speakers
How did slavic turn into many groups ? IIt was a single lannguag but diffrences were devloped in the 17 century when groups of slaves and asian came to europe
How is the Baltic-Slavic group dived into ? Eastern, west and south
What is the spoken languaage in the Eastern slavic ? Russian
How Did the importance of russian rise ? When the soviet union forced native speakers to learn russian
What is the most spoken language in the West slavic group ? Polish ,czech, and then slovak
How did the west slavic group tried to blance the languages ? By making the sport in one language one half and another language the other half
What is the most spoken language in the South Slavic ? The ones spoken in Bosnia,Herzegovina,croatia,mutenegro, and siebra
Why does the name Serbo-Croation offend the bosnianns and croatians ? It reminds them of when their country were ruled by the serbs
WHere di the Romance languages come from ? The latin language
What are the Four main rmance languages ? French,spanish,portuguese,italian
What was the physical boundries for the main countries in the romance language ? Rugged mts.
What are the 4 countires envolved with thr romance branch ? Spain,Potugual,Italy,and france
What is the 5th most importanr language in the Romance branch ? Romainan princple language of romania and moldova
What are the 2 offical Romance languages? Romash in Switertland Catalan spoken in andorra spain
What is the last romance language ? Sardinan
What are some romance languages that have their own liteary traditon ? Italy= Ladin Northeast=Friulian
What is Ladino ? A mixture of spanis and greek turkish and hebrew spoken by jews
The diffusinon of romance languages started in ? Rome 2,000 years ago
How was latin language diffused ? By roman Armies counquering occcupied provinces and native languages were destroyed
After roman empire collapsed what happened ? The latin language varied more which when some languages were isolted made new languaes
What was the region tht becaome the standard from of french ? Francien because it contained pairs
What are the 2 surving dialects within france ? North = d'oil South = d'oc
How did the treaty of toredisilas help ? The pope gave the west part to spain and east to portugal
How did the Spanish and Portugese soread worlwide ? Because of the activiness in spain and portugal colnies activites
What is the offical language in spain ? Spanish
Where is spanish and portugese spoken / Spanish0 mainly central and southe america Potuguese- brazil
Difficulty arise with two languages when ? Trying to figure out if they are two diffrent languages or two diffrent dislects of the same language
What Lnaguage came before Proto-Indo-european ? Norastic
What evidence do we have that make us no Prot-indo european existed ? the physical attributes of words that vary from indo european languages
Prot-Indo europeans speakers lived how ? In cold weather and werent hunters a
What are the 2 theorys that state how Proto-Indo European spread ? Nomadic Warrior thesis and Sedentray Farmmer thesis
Nomadiic Warrior Thesis ? Had the first PI speakers which were the Kurgans which lived in the steeps in 4300BC they were nomadic herder and rode on the horse and conqured land
Sedentary Framer thesis? Spearkers came berfore the Kurgans diffused from greece to italy to france, spain,portugal making the romnce branch . Then indo-european moved from greece to the east diffused with agriculture
What is the 2 most spoken family and what is the most common language ? Sino-Tibetan, Mandarin
What is the 3rd most spoken language and the most common language ? Afro-Asiatic,Arabic
Why isnt mandrin the offical language ? Hrd to learn isnt world wide only spoken in china
The small number of languages in China shows ? Unity
What is the chinese language based off ? Ideograms that are characters
Austronesian ? In indonesia ,clustred in the islands most common language in Javanese and madagascar is include
Ausro-Aiatic ? In vietnamese
Tai kadai- Spoken in thailand
Afro-asiatic - common language is Arabic is mostly know because the holy book called the quaran
Altaic - Common language is turkish
Niger-Congo S Swahili is common language espically in rural areas
Nilo-Saharan ? Spoken in North africa not many speakers
Khoisan ? Use clicking sounds
Uralic ? 3 countires that isnt dominate dby indo european which are finalnd,estonia and hungray
What is an example of an extinct language ? Gothic spoken in europe
What is so intresting about Hebrew ? Was an exticnt language but was brought back by its written records
Where is celtic spoken now ? In scotland and irland
Irish Gaelic ? Spoken in ireland
Scotticsh Gaelic spoken in scotland
Brythonic Spoken in wales
Cornish is extonct last speaker was Dolly Pentretch
Breton Spoken in Britanny
What is an example of multilingual countries ? Belgium south speak french nprth speak dutch
Why wont belgium norht and south seprate ? Because of capital
What is the language of Basque ? was spoken when land was counqured but wasnt cjanged because of isolation
Icelandic is a part of Indo-eurpoean but why id it diffrent ? It hasnt changed because of being isolated
Englisg is the offical language for ? Trade , travel, business, pop culture
Why isnt english the global language ? people arent willing to drop their language
What are some other Lingu-francas ? Swahili,Hindi,Indonesia,russian
Why is it controverisal to learn ebonics ? Some see it as improper other see it as perserving african culture
What is franglis ? English being spoken in the french language
What is spanglish ? english and spanish being spoken as a combination
Danglish A combination of german and english
Why are they banning Franglish ? to protect tyhe franch language
What are cubonics is a combination of cuban and phonetics
Created by: BB2424
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