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Chapter 5 Languae
|What is an Ethnologue ?
|One of the most authorative source of languages , 6,909 kanguages in total
|What are some places that dont have literary tradition ?
|tribes, and isolated areas
|The lack of literary tradition causes?
|Probmlems to document distribution of languages
|Who chooses the offical language and where is it mostly spoken in a country ?
|The goverment and around the captial
|What are the two main meanings of language in culture ?
|Peoples values and their artifacts
|How is language diffused at first ?
|By migration of people
|What does the global distribution of language is caused by what 2 process ?
|Interaction and isolation
|English is the offical language in how many countries ?
|The distribution of english came from the ?
|How did english first diffused ?
|From west England to north america in the 17 century
|What town did it start in ?
|Jamestown in plymouth 1607 and after NA defeated the english , english was assured
|What countries did Brtian over take ?
|Ireland, South Asia, South Pacific, South Africa and made english the offical language
|Who were the first inhabitants in Britosh Isles ?
|The celtics in 2,000 B.C and spoke celtic
|What happened in AD 450 on the british isles ?
|The celtics were invaded and moved too scotland and wales
|What were the 3 Germanic Tribes that invaded the Britsih iles ?
|Angles,Saxons, And Jutes which all spoke Englise
|What was the bigges Germanic tribe ?
|Where does our english come from ?
|The language spoken by the tribes
|At some point in history what happened ?
|Everyone spoke the same Germanic language
|What did the vikings do to england ?
|Were defted but stayed and changed the language
|What happened when the Normans invaded in 1066
|They changed the language because they spoke french,French being the offical language for 300 years
|What happened after england lost control of normandy ?
|People when back to talking english making it the offical language in 1362 only upper class still spoke french
|What is it called when speakers of two languages can understand each other ?
|Words that are common come from where ? Fancy Words ?
|How is the distribution of dialects documented ?
|By the study of particular words
|When people from one location goes to another what happens ?
|Varies the dialect of that language
|How do english languages Vary ?
|Who uses the standard language ?
|News casters because of the so many diffrent dialects
|Where did the justes come from ?
|Wher did the Angles come from ?
|Where did the saxons come from ?
|North western Germany
|What are the Five major region dialects in England ?
|Northern, East Midland, West Midland, Southwestern, and southeastern
|What are the 3 main region dialects ?
|Midland, Northern, Southern
|How did the introduction of the dialect of the upper class come by ?
|By the printing press in 1476
|What is the major diffrence North Americas English is diffrent than the U.K ?
|How was our englished changed ?
|By immagrants from other countires coming and changing the dialect and adding words etc
|What are 3 ways North America english varys from U.k's ?
|Vocab, Spelling, and Pronunctaion
|Why is our vocab diffrent ?
|Because we encountred new objects we had to name
|Why is our spelling diffrent ?
|Because Noah Webster made a type of english writing diffrent than the Uk which would make us more independent
|Why is our pronociation diffrent ?
|Because the amount of intercation we had
|What are some other reason we dont speak the same english ?
|Colonist that came did not speak proper english and did not come from upper class
|What are the 3 areas that the settmlemnts can be grouped in /
|New England, Southeast, Middle Atlantic
|New England ?
|Mostly inhabited by Puritans from South East England
|Half same from southeast england very diverse much low class
|Middle Atlantic ?
|Quakers from the north of england and other countries like germaany most diverse
|Words used relate to what ?
|Rural life, food, objects, from dail activites
|Why id their a greater language idn rural areas ?
|Isolation ,daily acticites, food, objects
|What encourages the adoption of some words in the country ?
|What do they say for soda in NE and SW? Midwest and NW? Southerners ?
|Why do New england and Southern accent are unusaul ?
|Most prononcation came from middle atlantic states
|Madrin is the most ?
|Spoken language in the world
|English is the most?
|Spoken language in the Indo-European
|How many Branches does Indo-European language have ?
|What are the main Indo-European languages ?
|Germanic ,Romance, Baltic-solvic and Indo-Iranian
|What are the 4 lesser Branches in Indo-european ?
|Almmenian,Greek,Celtic, and armeenian
|What are the languages in the Germanic Branch ?
|German ,English , Icelandic,Dutch, Swedish
|Why is english in the germanic Branch ?
|Because of the tribes that invaded england
|Language has less what ?
|Diffrences and less old in the langugae
|What group og the germanic branch does english fall in ?
|What are the subgroups west germanic fall into ?
|High and low High is the basis fpr standard german language
|What sub group of western germanic does english fall into ?
|What are the four languages spoken in Scandaniva ?
|Swedish, Danish,Norwegian, and iclenadic
|Indio-Irain group has two group which are ?
|West, Iranian and East, Indic
|The indo-iranian branch has ?
|The most speakers
|Indic-Iranian is mostly spoken in ?
|Indian, Pakistan and Bangladesh
|What is the offical language in India ?
|Hindi and English but most diverse country with languages
|The goverment of Indai is forced to do what ?
|To encourage the use of 22 languages
|What is the only way you can wrie hindi ?
|in scrpit called Devanagaria
|Where is the Iranian group spoken in /
|Iran and SW asia
|What are the major languages used in the Iranain group ?
|Persian in Iran, Pashto in Afghanistan and Pakistan, and Kurdish in iran iraq and turkey
|The Baltic-Slavic Branch is the what ?
|2nd most spoken group with most speakers
|How did slavic turn into many groups ?
|IIt was a single lannguag but diffrences were devloped in the 17 century when groups of slaves and asian came to europe
|How is the Baltic-Slavic group dived into ?
|Eastern, west and south
|What is the spoken languaage in the Eastern slavic ?
|How Did the importance of russian rise ?
|When the soviet union forced native speakers to learn russian
|What is the most spoken language in the West slavic group ?
|Polish ,czech, and then slovak
|How did the west slavic group tried to blance the languages ?
|By making the sport in one language one half and another language the other half
|What is the most spoken language in the South Slavic ?
|The ones spoken in Bosnia,Herzegovina,croatia,mutenegro, and siebra
|Why does the name Serbo-Croation offend the bosnianns and croatians ?
|It reminds them of when their country were ruled by the serbs
|WHere di the Romance languages come from ?
|The latin language
|What are the Four main rmance languages ?
|What was the physical boundries for the main countries in the romance language ?
|What are the 4 countires envolved with thr romance branch ?
|What is the 5th most importanr language in the Romance branch ?
|Romainan princple language of romania and moldova
|What are the 2 offical Romance languages?
|Romash in Switertland Catalan spoken in andorra spain
|What is the last romance language ?
|What are some romance languages that have their own liteary traditon ?
|Italy= Ladin Northeast=Friulian
|What is Ladino ?
|A mixture of spanis and greek turkish and hebrew spoken by jews
|The diffusinon of romance languages started in ?
|Rome 2,000 years ago
|How was latin language diffused ?
|By roman Armies counquering occcupied provinces and native languages were destroyed
|After roman empire collapsed what happened ?
|The latin language varied more which when some languages were isolted made new languaes
|What was the region tht becaome the standard from of french ?
|Francien because it contained pairs
|What are the 2 surving dialects within france ?
|North = d'oil South = d'oc
|How did the treaty of toredisilas help ?
|The pope gave the west part to spain and east to portugal
|How did the Spanish and Portugese soread worlwide ?
|Because of the activiness in spain and portugal colnies activites
|What is the offical language in spain ?
|Where is spanish and portugese spoken /
|Spanish0 mainly central and southe america Potuguese- brazil
|Difficulty arise with two languages when ?
|Trying to figure out if they are two diffrent languages or two diffrent dislects of the same language
|What Lnaguage came before Proto-Indo-european ?
|What evidence do we have that make us no Prot-indo european existed ?
|the physical attributes of words that vary from indo european languages
|Prot-Indo europeans speakers lived how ?
|In cold weather and werent hunters a
|What are the 2 theorys that state how Proto-Indo European spread ?
|Nomadic Warrior thesis and Sedentray Farmmer thesis
|Nomadiic Warrior Thesis ?
|Had the first PI speakers which were the Kurgans which lived in the steeps in 4300BC they were nomadic herder and rode on the horse and conqured land
|Sedentary Framer thesis?
|Spearkers came berfore the Kurgans diffused from greece to italy to france, spain,portugal making the romnce branch . Then indo-european moved from greece to the east diffused with agriculture
|What is the 2 most spoken family and what is the most common language ?
|What is the 3rd most spoken language and the most common language ?
|Why isnt mandrin the offical language ?
|Hrd to learn isnt world wide only spoken in china
|The small number of languages in China shows ?
|What is the chinese language based off ?
|Ideograms that are characters
|In indonesia ,clustred in the islands most common language in Javanese and madagascar is include
|Spoken in thailand
|common language is Arabic is mostly know because the holy book called the quaran
|Common language is turkish
|Swahili is common language espically in rural areas
|Spoken in North africa not many speakers
|Use clicking sounds
|3 countires that isnt dominate dby indo european which are finalnd,estonia and hungray
|What is an example of an extinct language ?
|Gothic spoken in europe
|What is so intresting about Hebrew ?
|Was an exticnt language but was brought back by its written records
|Where is celtic spoken now ?
|In scotland and irland
|Irish Gaelic ?
|Spoken in ireland
|spoken in scotland
|Spoken in wales
|is extonct last speaker was Dolly Pentretch
|Spoken in Britanny
|What is an example of multilingual countries ?
|Belgium south speak french nprth speak dutch
|Why wont belgium norht and south seprate ?
|Because of capital
|What is the language of Basque ?
|was spoken when land was counqured but wasnt cjanged because of isolation
|Icelandic is a part of Indo-eurpoean but why id it diffrent ?
|It hasnt changed because of being isolated
|Englisg is the offical language for ?
|Trade , travel, business, pop culture
|Why isnt english the global language ?
|people arent willing to drop their language
|What are some other Lingu-francas ?
|Why is it controverisal to learn ebonics ?
|Some see it as improper other see it as perserving african culture
|What is franglis ?
|English being spoken in the french language
|What is spanglish ?
|english and spanish being spoken as a combination
|A combination of german and english
|Why are they banning Franglish ?
|to protect tyhe franch language
|What are cubonics
|is a combination of cuban and phonetics